Abstract:
This work is concerned about the true physical mechanism of gravity. The Higgs theory introduces important changes in Einstein’s view about the nature of empty space, about the meaning of motions and about the nature of the gravitational physics. The Higgs Quantum Space (HQS) is a real quantum fluid spatial medium, giving inertial mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism. Therefore, the HQS rules the inertial motion of matter-energy and is the local ultimate reference for rest and for motions. In this new scenario, velocity with respect to the local HQS and not relative velocity is the origin of all the effects of motion. The HQS also necessarily is responsible for the gravitational fields because it is mass that creates the gravitational fields. The observed absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks by the solar field and the absence of light anisotropy with respect to earth are both the obvious signature of the true physical mechanism of gravity in action. These observations show that the HQS is moving itself round the sun according to a Keplerian velocity field, consistent with the planetary motions, which will be shown to accurately create, besides the observed gravitational dynamics, all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on light and on clocks. Current theories explain the absence of the solar gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks with base in the principle of equivalence. In the language of the present work, the HQS materializes the local Lorentz frames (LFs), turning them into local proper LFs, intrinsically stationary with respect to the local moving HQS. In its motions, the HQS carries these local proper LFs with it round the sun, so that the planets of the solar system are stationary with respect to them, which directly predicts the absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks by the solar field, the absence of light anisotropy with respect to earth and all the other effects of the gravitational fields observed on earth.

Abstract:
The relativity of cosmic time is developed within the framework of Cosmological Relativity in five dimensions of space, time and velocity. A general linearized metric element is defined to have the form , where the coordinates are time , radial distance for spatials x, y and z, and velocity v, with c the speed of light in vacuum and t the Hubble-Carmeli time constant. The metric is accurate to first order in and v/c？. The fields and are general functions of the coordinates. By showing that =, a metric of the form is obtained from the general metric, implying that the universe is flat. For cosmological redshift z, the luminosity distance relation is used to fit combined distance moduli from Type 1a supernovae up to z<1.5？and Gamma-Ray Bursts up to z<7, from which a value of is obtained for the matter density parameter at the present epoch. Assuming a baryon density of , a rest mass energy of (9.79+ 0.47) GeV？is predicted for the anti-baryonic and the particles which decay from a hypothetical

Abstract:
We show that, when measuring the Hubble constant by starting the evaluation from the time of the big bang era, the effect of time dilation results in a decrease in the value of the Hubble constant. But when evaluating the Hubble constant by starting the evaluation from the present time, the effect of time dilation results in an increase in the value of the Hubble constant. To elucidate the process, the time dilation is calculated both directly and through Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equation for the gravitational time dilation. It is concluded that both measured values are valid but because of time dilation, different starting times for the evaluation of the Hubble constant have resulted in different measured values for the Hubble constant.

Background/Aims: Recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) using a large balloon (12 - 20 mm) for extraction of difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones has been widely accepted with favorable outcomes. However, there is no consensus with regard to the ballooning time. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immediate balloon deflation in EPLBD for the treatment of difficult bile duct stone. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 80 consecutive patients with bile duct stones who were treated with an immediate balloon deflation method in EPLBD combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) between January 2010 and December 2012. Overall success rate, success rate at first ERCP, and the frequency of mechanical lithotripsy for complete stone removal were assessed for efficacy and safety was evaluated by assessing major complications. Results: Overall success rate for complete stone removal was high (78/80, 97.5%) and success rate for complete stone removal at first ERCP was 86.3% (69/80). The use of mechanical lithotripsy was 0% (0/80). The overall complication rate was favorable (5/80, 6.3%). PostERCP pancreatitis was observed in 3 patients (two: mild, one: moderate). In subgroup analysis, the presence of periampullary diverticulum was the only factor affecting the success rate at first ERCP. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the favorable outcome of immediate balloon deflation for treatment of difficult CBD stones and can be considered for clinical application.

It is shown that the speed of longitudinal-extended
elastic particles, emitted during an emission time T by a source S at speed u (escape speed toward the infinity due to all the masses in space), is invariant
for any Observer, under the Newtonian mechanics laws. It is also shown that a
cosmological reason implies the light as composed of such particles moving at speed u (function of the total gravitational potential). Compliance of c with Newtonian mechanics is shown for
Doppler effect, Harvard tower experiment, gravitational red shift and time
dilation, highlighting, for each of these subjects, the differences versus the relativity.

The twins
or clock paradox has been a subject of lively discussion and occasional disagreement
among both relativists and the public for over 100 years, and continues to attract
physicists who write papers giving new analyses or defending old ones, even though
many physicists now consider the matter only of educational interest. This paper
investigates the number of papers, which is increasing, and trends in explanations,
some of which are now targeted at professional physicists and other of which are
targeted at optical or radar visualization rather than problem solving. Observations
of students indicate that the latest techniques help but only somewhat. An analysis
is made of 21 previous treatments appearing in the education related American Journal
of Physics, Einstein’s discussions and several other pedagogical papers. A new memory
aid for simultaneity transformation is given that puts it on a par with “time dilation”
and “length contraction” for quick and easy problem visualization. The point of
view of a trailing twin is introduced to show how simultaneity changes account for
missing time in the turnaround. Length contraction is treated on equal footing with
time dilation, and Swann’s insight into clocks is extended to lengths. Treatments
using the conventionality of simultaneity are seen as equivalent to choice of co-moving
frames. Responses to difficult questions are suggested which avoid being dismissive,
and engage students’ critical thinking.

Abstract:
New data from FRB’s have provided an exciting new window on the cosmos. For the first time we have both Dispersion Measure (DM) from distant sources and their red-shift. This gives us the opportunity to determine the average electron number density in intergalactic space and thus test New Tired Light predictions. Here, in an alternative cosmology, the universe is static and redshifts are produced by an interaction between photons and the electrons in the intergalactic medium. In a paper published in summer 2006 New Tired Light (NTL) predicted an average electron number density of n = 0.5 m^{-3}. In 2016 a paper was published reporting that for the first time the DM of a FRB and the redshift of the host galaxy had been found. Using standard physics this confirmed the electron number density as n = 0.5 m^{-3}. The prediction NTL made ten years earlier was proved to be correct. Using this measured electron number density enabled a definitive value of the Hubble constant to be made by New Tired Light and the value is 63 km/s per Mpc which compares well with currently accepted values. Importantly, since in NTL the redshift and dispersion are both due to the electrons in IG space, a relationship between DM’s and redshift can be predicted. NTL predicts that DM and LN(1 + z) will be directly proportional and related by the formula DM = mec/2hr_{e}(3.086 × 1022) where me, re are the rest mass and classical radius of the electron, c is the speed of light in a vacuum and h is the plank constant. The numerical term is to change units from pccm^{-3} to m^{-2}. This reduces to DM = 2380LN(1 + z). Using data from five FRB’s this is tested and a linear relation is seen of the form DM = 1830LN(1 + z). The gradient of the plot from the observed data is within 23% of that predicted by NTL. Recently the Tolman Surface Brightness test has been applied to the HUDF and the results support a static universe whilst the possibility of two differing types of SN Ia whose distribution changes with distances means that tired light models can no longer be ruled out. Using SDF we know the distance to the Atlia galaxy cluster as 1.26 × 10^{24} m. With the average electron number density of n = 0.5 m^{-3} found from the Dispersion Measures of the FRB’s, from first principles, New Tired Light gives a calculated predicted redshift of 0.0086. This compares well with the value found spectroscopically of 0.0087—a difference of approximately 1%. It is shown that if the energy transferred to a recoiling electron when a UV photon of

Abstract:
We show that the speed of a longitudinal-extended, elastic (variable length), and massive particle, emitted by a source during an emission time T, at speed u (escape speed from all the masses in space), is invariant for every real measurement, (intending a measurement requiring an interaction light-matter), in spite of any reciprocal motion source-Observer. Thus we may argue that the light has to be composed of such particles (photons) moving at speed c = u. Compliance of these photons with Newtonian mechanics is shown for many effects, (like the Doppler effect, redshift, time dilation, etc.), highlighting the differences versus the Relativity. In the 2^{nd} part, on the assumption that the electron charge can be considered as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface, always facing the atom nucleus during the electron revolution, we revised the light-matter interaction, showing that it only depends on the particular impacts between these photons and the circling electrons: for instance, on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes v_{i}= c/137^{2}. [Classical mechanics implies that orbiting electrons produce an electro-magnetic radiation causing their fall into the nucleus: on Section 3.5, the reason why the electron circular orbits are stable].

Abstract:
Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (SR) relates time dilation to the velocity between the observer and the observed object as if they are identical. Our new theory breaks this symmetry by relating the velocity of the object not directly to the observer, but instead to the center of gravity of object and observer. The reason why such a mass influence has not been reported might be that the mass of the observer in most experiments is much greater than that of the object, for example when earth is observing, satellites or detectors are studying nuclear masses.