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Increasing Livestock Water Productivity under Rain Fed Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming Scenarios of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review
Mengistu Alemayehu,Tilahun Amede,Michael B?hme,Kurt J. Peters
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n7p1
Abstract: Although water is a renewable natural resource, it has become insufficient at the global level. Unless the current efficiency level of water use can be increased, the trend of water shortages will become more serious. Among agricultural activities, livestock production is mostly considered an intensive water consuming operation although the knowledge and information related to livestock-water interaction appears to be limited in scope. The present review focused on the livestock-water interaction with the following objectives: 1) to strengthen the current understanding of the concept of livestock water productivity and relate it to life cycle assessment analysis framework; 2) to provide insights on the methodology of livestock water productivity estimation using water foot printing approach; 3) to assess the potential integrative intervention options towards improving livestock water productivity pertinent to the contexts of rain fed mixed farming. The concept of water accounting for livestock production is reviewed to reflect feasible options for improving animal productivity, income, livelihood and ecological benefits per unit of water input, especially the practical implications of these options for the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Utilising the rainfed mixed farming endowment as a relatively less competitive water scenario is also emphasised. In line with the intention for increased livestock water productivity, the likelihood of its negative impact on the environment and possible mitigating methods are outlined.
Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of African farmers
Segenet Kelemu, George Mahuku, Martin Fregene, Douglas Pachino, Nancy Johnson, Lee Calvert, Idupulapati Rao, Robin Buruchara, Tilahun Amede, Paul Kimani, Roger Kirkby, Susan Kaaria, Kwasi Ampofo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: The intense debate over agricultural biotechnology is at once fascinating, confusing and disappointing. It is complicated by issues of ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific import. Its vocal champions exaggerate their claims of biotechnology as saviour of the poor and hungry, while, equally loudly, its opponents declare it as the doomsday devil of agriculture. Sandwiched between these two camps is the rest of the public, either absorbed or indifferent. Biotechnology issues specific to the African public must include crop and animal productivity, food security, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and must exclude political considerations. Food and its availability are basic human rights issues—for people without food, everything else is insignificant. Although we should discuss and challenge new technologies and their products, bringing the agricultural biotechnology debate into food aid for Africa where millions are faced with life-or-death situations is irresponsible. Agricultural biotechnology promises the impoverished African a means to improve food security and reduce pressures on the environment, provided the perceived risks associated with the technology are addressed. This paper attempts to harmonize the debate, and to examine the potential benefits and risks that agricultural biotechnology brings to African farmers.
Enhancing Amharic Information Retrieval System Based on Statistical Co-Occurrence Technique  [PDF]
Abey Bruck, Tulu Tilahun
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.312006
Abstract: Information retrieval (IR) systems are designed to help information seekers retrieving relevant information from vast document. The need for relevant information from a vast amount of document gave birth to IR systems. Even though different IR systems exist, they cannot meet all users’ expectations. A different level of users’ knowledge makes queries to be expressed in different ways. As a result, the system may miss the core meaning of users query and retrieve dissatisfactory results. This happens mainly because of the ambiguities of words involved in the natural languages and expression mismatch among users and authors. The existing ambiguities in Amharic language have negative impacts on the performance of Amharic IR system. Some of the ambiguities for this type of problem are: spelling variants of the same word, polysemous and synonymous terms. If users are not fully knowledgeable about the information domain area, they will mostly formulate weak queries to retrieve documents. Thus, they end up frustrated with the results found from an IR system. This research has been conducted, aiming at augmenting the recall of previous work. Statistical co-occurrence technique has been used in order to expand query terms. The main reason for performing query expansion is to provide relevant documents as per users’ query that can satisfy their information need. Statistical co-occurrence method considers, frequently appearing terms with the query term, regardless of their position. The efficiency of proposed technique has been tested on the prototype system and the result found compared with the result of previous study. Accordingly, 6% recall and 2% f-measure improvement has been made. Hence, the statistical co-occurrence method outperformed the bi-gram based IR system.
Modeling and Simulation of Real Gas Flow in a Pipeline  [PDF]
Agegnehu Atena, Tilahun Muche
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.48175
Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical model that describes the flow of gas in a pipe is formulated. The model is simplified by making some assumptions. It is considered that the natural gas flowing in a long horizontal pipe, no heat source occurs inside the volume, transfer of heat due to heat conduction is dominated by heat exchange with the surrounding. The flow equations are coupled with equation of state. Different types of equations of state, ranging from the simple Ideal gas law to the more complex equation of state Benedict Webb Rubin Starling (BWRS), are considered. The flow equations are solved numerically using the Godunov scheme with Roe solver. Some numerical results are also presented.
Design and Development of E-Governance Model for Service Quality Enhancement  [PDF]
Tulu Tilahun, Durga Prasad Sharma
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2015.33007
Abstract: Governance is a process of establishing policies or laws and continuously monitoring their implementation in the public. Citizens are the main stakeholders in this process. To make the governance process cost effective, easy and convenient to the citizens, information and communication technologies (ICTs) are playing a vital role. Using ICTs in governance domain can be referred as e-governance. It helps citizen to participate not only in policy making but also in service quality improvements and getting government services over network. Web technology is one of the major technologies that have been used in e-governance as a major contributor. Before invention of web, citizens used to write their opinions and send to concerned body via post mail or local suggestion box for improvements of services. After the invention of the web, it became possible to post or send the opinions/comments over organization’s web sites or portals. As the number of comments increases over the web, it is very difficult to have relevant information for furthering the decision making processes. In these study, text processing and data mining techniques have been used. The prototype system classifies citizen’s opinions in one of six service categories with the precision of 87.3% and recall of 85.8%. Further, the system determines opinions as appreciation with the precision of 100% for both depression and appreciation, and average recall of 90.85% for both depression and appreciation. The results obtained from the prototype system indicate that the techniques that have been applied are promising for real world application in e-governance.
The characterisation of rainfall in the arid and semi-arid regions of Ethiopia
K Tilahun
Water SA , 2006,
Abstract: In order to plan effective agricultural and water resource projects, it is necessary to understand the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Although it is one of the most drought-hit countries in the world, almost no study has ever been conducted in characterising the rainfall pattern of the arid and semi-arid regions of Ethiopia. In this study, rainfall data of the past 50 years was used to study the basic statistical characteristics of the rainfall of this region. Annual and monthly rainfall was fitted to the theoretical probability distributions and the best distributions describing the data at respective stations were determined. Probability of wet days and dry periods of different durations was determined. It has been found that both annual and monthly rainfall at different stations was described by different probability distributions. There is high variation of rainfall pattern among the stations. Heavier rainfall events are infrequent but they make up a significant percentage of the total rainfall. In arid and semi-arid regions where both the amount and frequency of rainfall occurrence is low, it is essential to take into account the unique rainfall characteristics in such regions. Water SA Vol.32 (3) 2006: pp.429-436
Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy among patients with liver cirrhosis  [PDF]
Tilahun Belay, Todd Gress, Rameez Sayyed
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.38060

Introduction: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is a clinical syndrome in patients with liver cirrhosis characterized by an abnormal and blunted response in cardiac output and contractility to physiologic, pathologic, or pharmacologic stress but a normal to increased cardiac response at rest [1-4]. Information on the epidemiology and natural history of CCM is limited. Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of cirrhosis (N = 451) seen at gastroenterology clinic over the four years were evaluated. CCM was defined using echocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria [1]. Patients with structural or ischemic heart disease or incomplete information were excluded (N = 220). Results: Among the 231 patients with cirrhosis, 118 (51.1%) met criteria for CCM, and no patient had this problem documented in their medical record. Those with CCM were older (62.7 vs 57.8 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to be female (55.8 vs 40.2%; p = 0.02) compared to those without CCM. The likelihood of CCM increased with each quartile of age (OR 1.6 per quartile; 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Patients with alcoholic and unknown causes of cirrhosis are more likely to have CCM, (p < 0.001). CCM was more commonly associated with alcohol abuse in men than women (49.1 vs 21.3%; p = 0.002). Conclusion: CCM, a diagnosis of exclusion, defined by ECHO and ECG criteria is a common problem among cirrhotic patients attending a gastroenterology practice. Advancing age and female gender were associated with a higher prevalence of CCM, but the cause of cirrhosis was not possibly limited by smaller sample size within cause-specific categories. CCM was not recognized by our clinicians, and routine screening tests were not performed. Provider awareness of CCM is needed since implementation of angiotensin receptor blocker and beta-blocker therapy early in the course of cirrhosis may modify the changes in cardiac function [5,6].


In Vitro Direct Organogenesis Protocol for Mass Propagation of an Elite Ethiopian Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Cultivar: Mareko Fana  [PDF]
Tilahun Hailu, Balcha Abera, Jiregna Daksa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69143
Abstract: An efficient and reproducible in vitro mass propagation protocol was developed for Mareko Fana cultivar of hot pepper (C. annuum L.) through direct organogenesis using nodal and shoot tip explants. Three percent active chlorine for 20 minutes was found to be optimum treatment combination yielding 82.5% ± 5.00% contaminant-free germinated seedlings. For shoot induction, MS + 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l IAA and MS medium containing eight mg/l Zeatin were found to be optimum resulting 77.5% ± 5.00% and 67.50% ± 5.00% induction percentage for nodal and shoot tip explants respectively. Maximum shoot multiplication responses were obtained on MS + 3 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l Kinetin with mean number of 9.2 ± 0.2 and 8.6 ± 0.00 shoots for nodal and shoot tip explants respectively. Best shoot elongation and rooting responses were obtained on MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA resulting mean value of 29.6 ± 0.12 root number, 4.25 ± 0.20 cm root length and 5.12 ± 0.20 cm shoot height. The plantlets showed 77.5% survival during acclimatization and transplanting.
Challenges of Groundwater Flow Model Calibration Using MODFLOW in Ethiopia: With Particular Emphasis to the Upper Awash River Basin  [PDF]
Behailu Berehanu, Tenalem Ayenew, Tilahun Azagegn
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.53005
Abstract: In this work, most important problems related to model calibration have been assessed using MODFLOW. Particular emphasis is given to the Upper Awash river basin where many boreholes have been drilled for municipal and industrial uses compared with other regions in Ethiopia. Static Water Level (SWL) records from water supply wells drilled for about 32 years in the Upper Awash basin is considered to illustrate the commonly used groundwater flow model calibration procedures and associated problems. The assumptions made in the modeling procedures to use SWL data collected over many years from water supply boreholes to calibrate steady state models is too much of an assumption. Alternatives on steady and pseudo transient model calibration approaches in data scarce areas based on logical assumptions and reasonable representation of groundwater systems has been suggested. Hence, numerical groundwater flow models may play the expected key role for the sustainable groundwater resource management of the country, which is solving practical ground-water related problems.
Analysis of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Service utilization in Ethiopia: 2006-2010
Tilahun Nigatu, Yoseph Woldegebriel
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-6
Abstract: To examine the progresses and unaddressed needs in access and utilization of PMTCT services in Ethiopia from 2006 to 2010 thereby developing best-fit regression models to predict the values of key PMTCT indicators at critical future points.Five-year national level PMTCT data were analyzed in a cascaded manner. Five levels of analysis were used for ten major PMTCT indicators. These included description of progress made, assessment of unaddressed needs, developing best-fit models, prediction for future points and estimation using constant prevalence. Findings were presented using numerical and graphic summaries.Based on the current trend, Ethiopia could achieve universal ANC coverage by 2015. The prevalence of HIV at PMTCT sites has shown a four-fold decrease during the five-year period. This study has found that only 53% of known HIV-positive mothers and 48% of known HIV-exposed infants have received ARV prophylaxis. Based on assumption of constant HIV prevalence, the estimated ARV coverage was found to be 11.6% for HIV positive mothers and 8.4% for their babies.There has been a remarkable improvement in the potential coverage of PMTCT services due to rapid increase in the number of PMTCT service outlets. However, the actual coverage remained low. Integration of PMTCT services with grassroots level health systems could unravel the problem.According to the latest data, significant progress has been made in delivering prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in low and middle income countries. However, much work remains to be done. An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, the vast majority of them through mother-to-child transmission [1].According to the 2010 report, Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector by the World Health Organization (WHO), significant progress in the area of PMTCT has been made during the past several years. In 2009, 53% [40-79%] of the estimated HIV-in
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