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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4349 matches for " Thyneice Taylor "
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Cholesterol Depletion Inactivates XMRV and Leads to Viral Envelope Protein Release from Virions: Evidence for Role of Cholesterol in XMRV Infection
Yuyang Tang, Alvin George, Thyneice Taylor, James E. K. Hildreth
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048013
Abstract: Membrane cholesterol plays an important role in replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Here, we report that the gammaretrovirus XMRV requires cholesterol and lipid rafts for infection and replication. We demonstrate that treatment of XMRV with a low concentration (10 mM) of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2OHpβCD) partially depleted virion-associated cholesterol resulting in complete inactivation of the virus. This effect could not be reversed by adding cholesterol back to treated virions. Further analysis revealed that following cholesterol depletion, virus-associated Env protein was significantly reduced while the virions remained intact and retained core proteins. Increasing concentrations of 2OHpβCD (≥20 mM) resulted in loss of the majority of virion-associated cholesterol, causing disruption of membrane integrity and loss of internal Gag proteins and viral RNA. Depletion of cholesterol from XMRV-infected cells significantly reduced virus release, suggesting that cholesterol and intact lipid rafts are required for the budding process of XMRV. These results suggest that unlike glycoproteins of other retroviruses, the association of XMRV glycoprotein with virions is highly dependent on cholesterol and lipid rafts.
Public Awareness and Performance Relating to the Implementation of a Low-Carbon Economy in China: A Case Study from Zhengzhou  [PDF]
Liping Chen, David Taylor
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.22009
Abstract: This paper aims to examine levels of awareness and performance relating to the promotion of a Low-carbon economy (LCE) among the general public in Zhengzhou, China. The data and information used were derived from 300 question-naires distributed randomly among households in the west, south and north urban districts of Zhengazhou. The results indicate a combination of high awareness with poor understanding of LCE programmes among respondents, with the poor understanding probably due to a shortage of appropriate information from trusted sources and shortcomings in education. Respondents generally showed positive attitudes toward pro-environmental actions, such as refusing to use plastic bags, waste recycling, water and energy conservation. Apart from regulation and policies, they considered edu-cation and economic incentives as effective mechanisms to promote LCE implementation. Overall those consulted re-sponded favourably towards the prospect of LCE, with some reservations. Results of the study, though limited, suggest that the general public in China has the potential to be a facilitator of environmental improvements in the country.
The 1964 Wellington Study of Beatlemania Revisited  [PDF]
A. J. W. Taylor
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515190
Abstract: In June 1964, an Honours class in clinical psychology set out to objectify the major parameters of crowd and audience reaction to the Beatles’ during the group’s three-day visit to Wellington, New Zealand. Advance publicity had warned of the “mass-hysteria” to be expected at the sight, sound and lyrics of the four lads from Liverpool. Adolescents anticipated their arrival eagerly, while the authorities were disparaging and somewhat fearful of the breakdown in law and order that might occur. The findings were published in Britain in 1966, taken a little further in the United States in1968, and the original published once more in Britain in 1992 by special request to encourage more psychologists to undertake research off campus. When writers from those countries mentioned the study recently near the 50th anniversary of the Beatles’ visit, it seemed interesting to review the accretion of similar studies that might have occurred. Sadly, the outcome showed that psychologists had not taken mass-audience research any further. Hence it was thought appropriate to lift the Wellington study from obscurity, in the hope of inspiring the next generation to make amends.
The Impact of Saudi Arabia King Abdullah’s Scholarship Program in the U.S.  [PDF]
Charles Taylor, Wasmiah Albasri
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.210013
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the current Saudi educational landscape in the U.S. Information is provided on the King Abdullah Scholarship Program that makes it possible for Saudi students to study abroad, information on the top states and colleges with the largest Saudi student enrollments, and what the future looks like for the Scholarship Program. This paper is the first of two papers dealing with Saudi education in the U.S. The next paper is based on original research and provides the results of surveys administered to Saudi students throughout the U.S. about their experiences on U.S. campuses. Directors of International Programs were also surveyed and the paper contrasts their perceptions with Saudi student perceptions in addressing student needs. The next paper also discusses the impact western education is having on Saudi culture and how Saudi culture is affecting colleges and universities in the U.S.
Frequency Decay through Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption and Re-Emission by Inter-Galactic Dark Matter as an Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant  [PDF]
David Grant Taylor
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2016.23027
Abstract: There is an alternate cause for the decay rate defined by Edwin Hubble’s Cosmological Constant Theory. It can be proposed because inward motion is observed in the local Galaxies||Star groups around the Milky Way. The recession velocity of Galaxies farther out of is reasoned entirely from the increasing redshift in the frequency. The smaller the image of observed Galaxy/Cluster objects, the greater the downward shift in frequency of all Electro-Magnetic signals [EM]. An alternate cause for that downward shift could be through the absorption and re-emission through matter, leading to the absorption of some fraction of the energy quanta. There is nowhere in our Local Universe that is both absolutely devoid of matter and the continual formation of objects of all scales. If redshift was because of space expansion, it would increase the distance that signal had to travel. So a signal from GN-z11 stellar structure at 13.4 billion light years [LY] would take 13.4 billion years to travel. Assuming 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang would mean GN-z11 object travelled 13.4 billion LY in 400 million years. A current value for the Hubble constant is: H0=(67.8 ± 0.77) km s -1 Mpc -1 ?a frequency is shift of 67.8/c over a single Mpc. An alternate expression would be a shift factor 2.261560E-5 over a distance of 3.08567E22 m or a redshift of 7.32923E-28 over a metre because of passage through a medium. Dark matter is a currently accepted phenomenon. It is proposed that properties include redshift’s all normal matters that are put upon EM||Boson signals at the fraction stated above. The signal reduction|| frequency distortion happens at a quantum level for each occurrence, and so is not detectable until passage through millions of LY of Dark Matter. Support for this alternate supposition is reasoned from the fact that the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their Hubble recession velocity.
A Relativistic Escape Velocity Maximum of Light Speed  [PDF]
David Grant Taylor
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2016.23034
Abstract: There are parallels between the time distortion equations of General and Special Relativity. The time distortion in Special Relativity limits the “Real” velocity of a particle to the speed of light |c| by slowing the velocity of bosons/energy and increasing the mass of fermion||lepton (or matter) particles. In General Relativity, the gravitational slowdown of bosons/gravitons limits the escape velocity |v Esc| to light speed. |v Esc = (2GM/r)0.5| can also be written as |v Esc2 = 2GM/r|. So an alternate grammar for the equation could be
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The above contests currently held properties of Schwarzschild Objects. Relativistic theory predicts the slowdown of gravitons/bosons, while their velocity only approaches zero. The different mathe-matical logic of Gravitational Force ||GF|| GF = GMm/r2 would mean no limit on the force. Matter formed through compression of bosons can escape after formation by absorbing kinetic energy from the slowing photons/bosons in its surroundings. So matter formation can occur via a steady-state mechanism. The limit on v Esc allows matter to escape in events that parallel both the Big Bang and Cyclic cosmology. Additional arguments are made as to the validity of relativity.
The Relativistic Space-Time Perspective  [PDF]
David Grant Taylor
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.716197
Abstract: Equations developed in this paper show the relationship between Real values measured from a Special Relativity Perspective with no Distortion [noSRPD] and the values measured from the same perspective when those values are distorted. Inverse equations using the values measured from distorted perspective [SRPD] are also reasoned. Equation logic proceeds from the original Real Time distortion equations from Einstein’s On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. An alternate Time equation using the distorted velocity measured from a Relativistic Perspective is presented. Since the time distortion range is unlimited, velocity from a Relativistic Perspective can have an infinite value. Eight additional formulas for velocity, mass, time, and linear deformations are reasoned. Relativistic Perspective equations have confirmed consistency with Classic Relativity equations to 2000 significant digits for 37 velocity values ranging from 1.0E500 m/s to (c (1.0E500) m/s.
What Is Innovation? A Study of the Definitions, Academic Models and Applicability of Innovation to an Example of Social Housing in England  [PDF]
S. P. Taylor
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.511010
Abstract:
Throughout history innovation has been conceived, defined, interpreted and understood in different ways but what is it? This study looks at innovation starting with a brief history of innovation. It then looks at a sample of the multiple definitions that there are of innovation throughout the literature and from these develops a composite definition. From this composite definition, key components such as the creative process and academic models of creativity are looked at. The research then looks at the applicability of innovation through highlighting two studies carried out in England of innovation being applied within a social housing organisation. Through the application by a two dimensional typology of social innovation they had identified innovation being applied to new services and improvements to existing services. The research concludes that innovation can be identified with the creation of a new product or service or an improvement of an existing product or service.
The Levels of Toxic Air Pollutants in Kitchens with Traditional Stoves in Rural Sierra Leone  [PDF]
Eldred Tunde Taylor, Satoshi Nakai
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310154
Abstract: Wood and charcoal fuels, widely used in Sierra Leone for cooking, may impact indoor air quality. Until now, there is presently lack of data to quantify the extent of impact. In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves during cooking in rural areas. PAH contents of PM2.5 and PM2.5 - 10 fractions were analyzed using HPLC/FLD and SPM and CO were monitored in realtime. Mean ± SD concentrations of PM2.5 related ∑11PAHs, PM and CO were 2127 ± 1173 ng/m3, 1686 ± 973 μg/m3 and 28 ± 9 ppm for wood stoves; and 158 ± 106 ng/m3, 315 ± 205 μg/m3 and 42 ± 21 ppm for charcoal stoves, respectively. PAHs were largely associated with PM2.5 than PM2.5 - 10. Maximum 1-hr time averaged ± SD CO concentration for kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves were 44 ± 21 ppm and 77 ± 49 ppm, respectively. Generally, concentrations of PAHs, PM and CO were higher than the WHO recommended guidelines which raise concern with regards to health risks. Given the existing evidence of reduced emissions of PAHs, PM and CO from cleaner fuels, a transition from cooking with wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels would provide an improvement in indoor air quality, a requirement for good health.
Validity Evidence for Assessments on a UK Graduate Entry Medical Course  [PDF]
Celia A. Taylor, Remi Zvauya
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46A003
Abstract:

Graduate entry medical courses (GEC) have been introduced into the UK to increase the supply of doctors and to widen participation. In addition to evaluation against these outcomes, the educational process should also be evaluated. One aspect of process is assessment and different types of validity evidence for the assessments used should be provided. This paper provides validity evidence for the assessments on a UK GEC, focusing on the 2010/11 assessment diet. The types of validity evidence provided are content, internal structure, relationship with other variables and consequences. Students’ GEC assessment results are used to determine whether or not students should progress to Year 3 on the traditional course. 66% of the learning outcome/body system combinations in the assessment specification for Years 1 & 2 of the traditional course were assessed in one assessment diet. Short answer questions performed best in terms of difficulty and discrimination. The reliability of three modules was just outside the recommended range of 0.7 to 0.9. GEC performance is at least as good a predictor of final year performance as Year 1/2 performance on the traditional course. Across the six written modules for 2010/11, 12 scores (5%) were in the borderline range. Judgement regarding the validity of interpretations made from GEC assessment results is left to the reader since such judgements should not be made by those providing the validity evidence. Similar studies should aim to use benchmarks to enable results to be more objectively evaluated.

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