oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 740 matches for " Thomson Areapkoh Eyong "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /740
Display every page Item
Geogenic Imprint on Groundwater and Its Quality in Parts of the Mamfe Basin, Manyu Division, Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Regina Engome Wotany, Michael Obiekwe Nwude, Omagbemi Omoloju Yaya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75016
Abstract:
Groundwater studies in parts of the Mamfe basin are sparse and the Mamfe area has the highest population density in the Mamfe basin. An in-depth study of groundwater rock interaction and groundwater quality is of vital importance. This same part of the basin is the economic centre and as such development of businesses in this area requires knowledge of the groundwater quality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the input of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters, in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.3 - 8.6; EC, 3 - 1348 μS/cm; Temperature, 24.4 - 30.1
Seasonal Variations in Groundwater of the Phreatic Aquiferous Formations in Douala City-Cameroon: Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk Akoachere, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sophie Ngomune Edimo, Simon Ngomba Longonje, Diana Besem Tambe, Nji Bihmimihney Nelly
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105328
Abstract:
This study was to determine the seasonal variations of groundwater, the influence of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters; Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters; in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.6-7.1; EC, 0.023-1.63 mS/cm; Temperature, 26.3-290C andTDS, 0.015-1.09 mg/L and in the dry season pH ranged from 5-7.2; EC, 0.01-1.61 mS/cm; Temperature, 24.4-29.50C andTDS, 0.01-1.08 mg/L. Forty groundwater samples; 20 per season, wet and dry were analysed. Themajor ions fell below WHO acceptable limits for both seasons. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, Ca2 >K >Mg2 >NH4 >Na , HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->HPO42- in wet season and Ca2 >Mg2 >K >Na >NH4 , HCO3->Cl->SO42->HPO42->NO3- in dry season. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character. Groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Water types are; MgCl and MgHCO3 in both seasons. Hydrogeochemical facies are; Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, characteristic of groundwater some distance along its flow path and Ca-Mg-HCO3, characteristic of freshly recharged groundwater from precipitation. The groundwater indices of; Sodium Percent (% Na), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) , Kelley’s ratio (KR), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), USSL? and Wilcox index were determined, evaluated and found to be suitable for agro-industrial uses in all seasons. Permeability Index (PI) , Water quality index (WQI) and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) were not suitable in some areas and in some seasons.
Hydrogeology of Abuja FCT-Nigeria: A GIS Evaluation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Ebot Sonia Egbe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105649
Abstract:
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja FCT Nigeria’s capital, as many private and government establishments depend solely on wells for their water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is delicate due to its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate aquifers. This study is to evaluate the input of the rock formations to the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: pH, EC, Temperature, TDS, Chloro-alkaline indices, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality index. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. The major ions fell below WHO acceptable limits. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, K > Ca2 > Na > Mg2 for cations and Cl-> HCO3->NO3->SO42- for anions. Borehole depths range from 19.5 - 34.5 m with static water levels between 3 - 12 m.a.m.s.l. Yields were between 3.2 - 7.2 m3/Hr. Ionic ratios show ninety-five (95%) percent of the groundwater chemistry resulting from chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals through the dissolution of the host rock. The Chloro-alkaline indices: CAI1 87.23% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 12.77% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater while CAI2 85.11% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 14.89% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater. Thus chloro-alkaline indices indicate the dominance of alkaline earth elements over alkalis in majority of samples due to direct exchange of Ca2 and Mg2 from the aquifer matrix with Na and K from the groundwater. Gibbs diagram revealed groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Piper diagrams give three water types: 75% are CaHCO3, 21.20% are of MgHCO3 and 3.19% are of Na KHCO3 water types respectively. Piper diagrams also give three hydrogeochemical facies in Abuja FCT: 54.25% are of Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, 42.56% are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and 3.19% are of Na-K-Cl-SO4 hydrogeochemical facies respectively. Durov plot shows 20.21% are anion discriminate Ca dominant; mixed water and 63.83% had no dominant ion; simple dissolution. Water quality indices (WQI) values were between -220 - 180, Total hardness (TH) values were between 0 - 519.12. These WQI and TH values indicate that 69.2% and 47.37% of the groundwater respectively are suitable for domestic purpose. The groundwater in Abuja FCT is acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, soft to moderately hard and of low to high salinity. Major processes controlling the water quality are the weathering of the host rock through mineral dis-solution, cation exchange and inverse cation exchange processes. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character.
GIS-Hydrogeochemical Model of the Yaoundé Fractured Rock Aquifer, Cameroon: Aquifer Setting, Seasonal Variations in Groundwater-Rock Interaction and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omabgemi Omoloju Yaya, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Bihmimihney Nelly Nji, Diana Besem Tambe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75018
Abstract:
This study of the gneiss-fractured-rock aquifer in Yaoundé capital of Cameroon determines: the aquifer setting-flow systems, the aquifer type, seasonal variations in rock-water interactions, evolution of the hydrogeochemical processes, physicochemical parameters and the suitability for domestic-agro-industrial use of the groundwater. Physicochemical field tests were carried out on 445 wells during four seasons for EC, pH, TDS, Temperature and static water level from July 2016 to May 2017. 90 well samples were analyzed 45 samples per season: wet/dry. 38 borewell logs were used together with structural data to determine the aquifer setting. The field physico-chemical and laboratory analysis data of well samples were mounted unto various GIS software platforms: Global mapper, AqQa, Aquachem, Rockworks, Logplot7, Surfer and ArcGIS, to get indices/parameters/figures, by use of Durov’s, Piper’s and Gibbs diagrams, Water quality index WQI, USSL ratio, Sodium Absorption ratio SAR, Percent sodium %Na, Kelly Ratio KR, Magnesium Absorption Ratio MAR, Total Hardness TH, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and Permeability Index PI that were determined. The process of groundwater ions acquisition is three-fold: by recharge through atmospheric precipitation, by ion exchange/simple dissolution between the rock-groundwater and by groundwater mixing in its flow path. Water types are Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Cl while hydrogeochemical facies are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. Most water samples are
Assessing the Trace Metal Content of Groundwater in the Bakassi Peninsular, Onshore Rio del Rey, Akwa-Mundemba, Cameroun  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Takahiro Hosono, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Tom Tabi Oben
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.710003
Abstract: The present work assesses the trace metal content in groundwater from Akwa-Mundemba, Bakassi Peninsular in Cameroon. 12 groundwater samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy ICP-MS. Field measurement of physicochemical parameters was determined. R-mode statistical analysis; Pearson’s Correlation Analysis (PCA) together with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) between the trace metals and the physico-chemical parameters was carried out. Ten indices were determined: Four trace metal hazard indices; the average daily dose ADD (2.5E07 to 0.2)) carcinogenic risks CR (2.1E06 to 9.9E04) and the non-carcinogenic risk hazard quotient HQ (5.7E04 to 0.78) which yields the hazard indices HI (0.1 - 0.78), and six trace metal pollution indices; Degree of contamination DC (13.53 to 11.02), Enrichment factor EF (0.26 - 35.47), Ecological risk factor Er (29.92 - 7.04), Potential ecological risk index RI (-61.2-43.43), Pollution load index PLI (0.01 - 0.04) and Geo-accumulation index Igeo (4.8E-09-3.0). From health risk indices and pollution evaluation indices on trace metals, the groundwater in Akwa-Mundemba area is safe for drinking. The enrichment factors show that the sources of the trace metals are from geogenic and anthropogenic processes. Arsenic, Lead and Vanadium are enriched although they are below the hazard risk values; this shows they have pollution potential that could be attributed to weathering and agricultural wastes. The severity of metal toxicity is governed by several factors, such as dose, nutrition, age, and even life style. Therefore, these low trends might not guarantee the complete absence of human health risks. Generally, from risk assessment on trace metals using risk indices in the analyzed groundwater samples might not cause any health risk. However, due to an increasing level of environmental pollution that might be imposed by increasing human activity in this area, groundwater sources might become a potential sink of contaminants; this
Trace Metals in Groundwater of Kumba and Environs in Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Simon Oko Okpara
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105824
Abstract:
Kumba and environs situate between longitudes 9.24E - 9.5E and latitudes 4.44N - 4.7N, is the economic capital of the Southwest Region-Cameroon. It is located along the Cameroon Line at northwestern edge of the Douala Basin. The inhabitants depend mostly on groundwater through springs, handdug wells and boreholes. In this area like in most of Cameroon and Africa, water from groundwater sources (springs, wells and boreholes) is not treated. Often, it is given minimal or cosmetic periodic treatment if at all. Although the concentra-tions of trace metals in groundwater affects its safety and acceptability, testing for trace metals is less common and typically occurs mostly when a specific risk has been identified. This could be attributed to the high cost of analysis and lack of technological know-how. In addition to this, testing and monitoring of groundwater is not carried out most of the time and whenever it is done, only major cations and anions are analyzed. Due to the absence of treatment and testing of groundwater before drinking in Kumba and environs, there is a need to evaluate the trace metal content. The study had 21 groundwater samples analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. Field measurement of physicochemical parameters was determined. R-mode statistical analysis; Pearson’s Correlation Analysis (PCA) together with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) between the trace metals and the physico-chemical parameters was carried out. Ten indices were determined: Four trace metal hazard indices: the average daily dose ADD, carcinogenic risks CR and the non-carcinogenic risk hazard quotient HQ which yields the hazard indices HI, and six trace metal pollution indices: Degree of contamination (DC), Enrichment factor (EF), Ecological risk index (Er), Potential ecological risk index (RI), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accu- mulation index (Igeo). The general trend of mean trace metal concentration in the groundwater is in the order of: Mn > Fe > Ba > Sr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Li > Cr > V > As > Cd. HCA distinguishes two clusters based on spatial similarities and dissimilarities. Cluster one; (01) element Ba; soluble; Cluster two (13) non soluble elements divided into three classes; class one (06) As, Cd, V, Li, Pb, and Cr; less enriched. Class two (03) Co, Cu, Ni and Zn; enriched; Class two (04) Zn, Sr, Fe and Mn; more enriched.?
Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
Abstract:
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Groundwater Biological Quality in Abuja FCT: Myths and Realities of Point and Non-Point Pollution of Fractured Rock Aquifers  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Jane-Francis Kihla Akoachere, Simon Oko Okpara, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Felix Akumcha Mbaabe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105734
Abstract:
The quality of groundwater is three fold: physical, chemical and biological. For water to be fit for human consumption, it must have satisfied all three quality aspects. Therefore, the groundwater biological quality of Abuja FCT can never be over emphasized since the wellbeing of the citizens of the capital territory, seat of the government of Nigeria, is of strategic importance. There are myths and realities about the biological quality of groundwater in fractured rock aquifers which must be clarified. Groundwater plays a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many private, government, and households establishments depend solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. This study evaluates the biological quality using total bacterial density (TBD), total coliform (TC), coliform bacteria (CB), faecal coliform (FC), total bacteria count (TBC), and salmonella species (SS) as biological pollution indicators. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26?C - 36.1?C and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. Groundwater of Abuja FCT is not suitable for drinking as the species had the following concentration and percentages above the permissible limits for drinking water: TC (0 - 1280) 51.06%, FC (0 - 170) 19.15%, TBD (0 - 86.6) 98.94%, TBC (0 - 5120) 95.74%, CB (0 - 438) 74.47% and SS (0 - 223) 69.15%. Groundwater from Abuja FCT Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquiferous formation is unfit for human consumption and an added danger to humans since it is usually assumed to be safe. Groundwater from Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquifers could be the source of endemic outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as E. coli, Cholera, Gastroenteritis, Typhoid and Diarrhea; as such all groundwater from the aquiferous formations in Abuja FCT should be treated before consumption and use. Source protection strategies as well as monitoring are recommended although it may not serve the purpose for which it is intended since the potential for pollution is point and non-point sourced.
Evaluation of Trace Metals in Groundwater of Ekondo-Titi and Environs, Onshore Rio Del Rey, Cameroun  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Simon Oko Okpara, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105791
Abstract: Barium is the most enriched element in the study area; this could be attributed to agricultural fertilizers. Igeo values indicate groundwater is no pollution to moderately pollution risk from Li, V, Cr, Co, As, Cd, Pb while groundwater has a strong pollution risk from Ba and extreme pollution risk from Mn, Sr, Fe and Zn, though the concentrations of the trace metals are below WHO guidelines. Thus, from the health hazard indices and pollution risk indices on trace metals, the groundwater in Ekondo-Titi and environs is safe for drinking. The severity of metal toxicity is governed by several factors, such as dose, nutrition, age, and even life style. Therefore, these low trends that indicate the absence of human health hazards and health risks, the groundwater, might not guarantee the complete and permanent absence of human health hazards and risks due to an increasing level of environmental pollution that might be imposed by the increasing plantation agriculture in this area. Groundwater sources might become a potential sink of contaminants; this is the reason for recommending a constant monitoring and implementation program in Ekondo-Titi and environs.
The Head Stands Accused by the Heart! —Depression and Premature Death from Ischaemic Heart Disease  [PDF]
Wendy Thomson
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.32008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether clinical depression was associated with higher risk of premature death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Risk for IHD was examined separately by sex and sub-type of depression in a long-term follow-up study spanning 49 years. Method: Patients who were diagnosed with depression in the Chichester/Salisbury Catchment Area Study were followed for 49 years. Observed deaths from IHD prior to the age of 70 were compared with rates that were predicted from historical data on mortality rates from 1960 onwards. Results: Significantly higher rates of death from IHD before the age of 70 were found among males with endogenous depression. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the broader literature on mortality from natural causes among patients with clinical depression. In terms of prevention, the results indicate that patients diagnosed with severe clinical depression particularly men at the very least warrant risk assessment with regard to IHD.
Page 1 /740
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.