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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 255459 matches for " Thomas P. Van Boeckel "
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Improving Risk Models for Avian Influenza: The Role of Intensive Poultry Farming and Flooded Land during the 2004 Thailand Epidemic
Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Weerapong Thanapongtharm, Timothy Robinson, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Xiangming Xiao, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049528
Abstract: Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.
Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa - methods and results in Northern Malawi
Houben Rein MGJ,Van Boeckel Thomas P,Mwinuka Venance,Mzumara Peter
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-11-49
Abstract: Background Decentralised health services form a key part of chronic care strategies in resource-limited settings by reducing the distance between patient and clinic and thereby the time and costs involved in travelling. However, few tools exist to evaluate the impact of decentralisation on patient travel time or what proportion of patients attend their nearest clinic. Here we develop methods to monitor changes in travel time, using data from the antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out in a rural district in North Malawi. Methods Clinic position was combined with GPS information on the home village of patients accessing ART services in Karonga District (North Malawi) between July 2005 and July 2009. Potential travel time was estimated as the travel time for an individual attending their nearest clinic, and estimated actual travel time as the time to the clinic attended. This allowed us to calculate changes in potential and actual travel time as new clinics opened and track the proportion and origin of patients not accessing their nearest clinic. Results The model showed how the opening of further ART clinics in Karonga District reduced median potential travel time from 83 to 43 minutes, and median actual travel time fell from 83 to 47 minutes. The proportion of patients not attending their nearest clinic increased from 6% when two clinics were open, to 12% with four open. Discussion Integrating GPS information with patient data shows the impact of decentralisation on travel time and clinic choice to inform policy and research questions. In our case study, travel time decreased, accompanied by an increased uptake of services. However, the model also identified an increasing proportion of ART patients did not attend their nearest clinic.
The Nosoi commute: a spatial perspective on the rise of BSL-4 laboratories in cities
Thomas P. Van Boeckel,Michael J. Tildesley,Catherine Linard,José Halloy,Matt J. Keeling,Marius Gilbert
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Recent H5N1 influenza research has revived the debate on the storage and manipulation of potentially harmful pathogens. In the last two decades, new high biosafety (BSL-4) laboratories entered into operation, raising strong concerns from the public. The probability of an accidental release of a pathogen from a BSL-4 laboratory is extremely low, but the corresponding risk -- defined as the probability of occurrence multiplied by its impact -- could be significant depending on the pathogen specificities and the population potentially affected. A list of BSL-4 laboratories throughout the world, with their location and date of first activity, was established from publicly available sources. This database was used to estimate the total population living within a daily commuting distance of BSL-4 laboratories, and to quantify how this figure changed over time. We show that from 1990 to present, the population living within the commuting belt of BSL-4 laboratories increased by a factor of 4 to reach up to 1.8% of the world population, owing to an increase in the number of facilities and their installation in cities. Europe is currently hosting the largest population living in the direct vicinity of BSL-4 laboratories, while the recent building of new facilities in Asia suggests that an important increase of the population living close to BSL-4 laboratories will be observed in the next decades. We discuss the potential implications in term of global risk, and call for better pathogen-specific quantitative assessment of the risk of outbreaks resulting from the accidental release of potentially pandemic pathogens
Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax
Peter W Gething, Thomas P Van Boeckel, David L Smith, Carlos A Guerra, Anand P Patil, Robert W Snow, Simon I Hay
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-92
Abstract: We defined a dynamic biological model that incorporated the principal mechanisms of temperature dependency in the malaria transmission cycle and used it with fine spatial and temporal resolution temperature data to evaluate time-series of temperature suitability for transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax throughout an average year, quantified using an index proportional to the basic reproductive number. Time-series were calculated for all 1 km resolution land pixels globally and were summarised to create high-resolution maps for each species delineating those regions where temperature precludes transmission throughout the year. Within suitable zones we mapped for each pixel the number of days in which transmission is possible and an integrated measure of the intensity of suitability across the year. The detailed evaluation of temporal suitability dynamics provided by the model is visualised in a series of accompanying animations.These modelled products, made available freely in the public domain, can support the refined delineation of populations at risk; enhance endemicity mapping by offering a detailed, dynamic, and biologically driven alternative to the ubiquitous empirical incorporation of raw temperature data in geospatial models; and provide a rich spatial and temporal platform for future biological modelling studies.Amongst many natural and anthropogenic factors, ambient temperature plays a key role in determining the suitability of local environments for transmission of human malaria. At the extremes, temperature regimes constrain the geographical extent of the disease and, within this envelope, contribute to determining its intensity. These constraints are temporally dynamic, with fluctuations in transmission suitability and intensity driven by seasonal and inter-annual temperature cycles. The importance of temperature as an environmental determinant of malaria endemicity arises from a series of effects on the life cycles of the Plasmodium paras
Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock
Timothy P. Robinson, G. R. William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D'Aietti, Simon I. Hay, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Abstract: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
Correction: The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis
Marianne E Sinka, Yasmin Rubio-Palis, Sylvie Manguin, Anand P Patil, Will H Temperley, Peter W Gething, Thomas Van Boeckel, Caroline W Kabaria, Ralph E Harbach, Simon I Hay
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-210
Abstract: Copies of the corrected figure and the updated Additional file can be found in Figure 1 and Additional file 1 (in this publication) and are also available on the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website:Figure One:http:/ / www.map.ox.ac.uk/ media/ PDF/ Figure%201%20-%20An%20darlingi%20-% 20corrected.png webciteAdditional File Two (all species maps):http:/ / www.map.ox.ac.uk/ media/ PDF/ Sinka%20et%20al_Additional%20file%2 02%20-%20final%20maps%20(FINAL).pdf webcite
The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis
Marianne E Sinka, Yasmin Rubio-Palis, Sylvie Manguin, Anand P Patil, Will H Temperley, Peter W Gething, Thomas Van Boeckel, Caroline W Kabaria, Ralph E Harbach, Simon I Hay
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-72
Abstract: A database of contemporary occurrence data for 41 of the DVS of human malaria was compiled from intensive searches of the formal and informal literature. The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists. A suite of environmental and climate variables of suspected relevance to anopheline ecology were also compiled from open access sources. These three sets of data were then combined to produce predictive species range maps using the Boosted Regression Tree method. The predicted geographic extent for each of the following species (or species complex*) are provided: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann, 1820, An. (Nys.) albitarsis*, An. (Nys.) aquasalis Curry, 1932, An. (Nys.) darlingi Root, 1926, An. (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939, An. (Nys.) marajoara Galv?o & Damasceno, 1942, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari*, An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis* and An. (Ano.) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824. A bionomics review summarising ecology and behaviour relevant to the control of each of these species was also compiled.The distribution maps and bionomics review should both be considered as a starting point in an ongoing process of (i) describing the distributions of these DVS (since the opportunistic sample of occurrence data assembled can be substantially improved) and (ii) documenting their contemporary bionomics (since intervention and control pressures can act to modify behavioural traits). This is the first in a series of three articles describing the distribution of the 41 global DVS worldwide. The remaining two publications will describe those vectors found in (i) Africa, Europe and the Middle East and (ii) in Asia. All geographic distribution maps are being made available in the public domain according to the open access princip
Plastic or metal stents for benign extrahepatic biliary strictures: a systematic review
Petra GA van Boeckel, Frank P Vleggaar, Peter D Siersema
BMC Gastroenterology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-9-96
Abstract: A systematic review on stent placement for benign extrahepatic biliary strictures was performed after searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. Data were pooled and evaluated for technical success, clinical success and complications.In total, 47 studies (1116 patients) on outcome of stent placement were identified. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one non-randomized comparative studies and 46 case series were found. Technical success was 98,9% for uncovered self-expandable metal stents (uSEMS), 94,8% for single plastic stents and 94,0% for multiple plastic stents. Overall clinical success rate was highest for placement of multiple plastic stents (94,3%) followed by uSEMS (79,5%) and single plastic stents (59.6%). Complications occurred more frequently with uSEMS (39.5%) compared with single plastic stents (36.0%) and multiple plastic stents (20,3%).Based on clinical success and risk of complications, placement of multiple plastic stents is currently the best choice. The evolving role of cSEMS placement as a more patient friendly and cost effective treatment for benign biliary strictures needs further elucidation. There is a need for RCTs comparing different stent types for this indication.Benign biliary strictures occur most frequently as a consequence of a surgical procedure of the gallbladder, mainly cholecystectomy, or common bile duct (CBD) [1]. Other causes include inflammatory conditions, such as chronic pancreatitis and sclerosing cholangitis [2]. In addition, cholelithiasis, sphincterotomy and infections of the biliary tract may also lead to a stricture [3]. Benign strictures of the biliary tract are associated with a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from subclinical disease with mild elevation of liver enzymes to complete obstruction with jaundice, pruritus and cholangitis, and ultimately biliary cirrhosis [4].A bilio-digestive anastomosis, or a percutaneously or endoscopically performed dilation with or without stent placement are the most
The International Limits and Population at Risk of Plasmodium vivax Transmission in 2009
Carlos A. Guerra ,Rosalind E. Howes,Anand P. Patil,Peter W. Gething,Thomas P. Van Boeckel,William H. Temperley,Caroline W. Kabaria,Andrew J. Tatem,Bui H. Manh,Iqbal R. F. Elyazar,J. Kevin Baird,Robert W. Snow,Simon I. Hay
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774
Abstract: Background A research priority for Plasmodium vivax malaria is to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of risk and its relationship with the burden of P. vivax disease in human populations. The aim of the research outlined in this article is to provide a contemporary evidence-based map of the global spatial extent of P. vivax malaria, together with estimates of the human population at risk (PAR) of any level of transmission in 2009. Methodology The most recent P. vivax case-reporting data that could be obtained for all malaria endemic countries were used to classify risk into three classes: malaria free, unstable (<0.1 case per 1,000 people per annum (p.a.)) and stable (≥0.1 case per 1,000 p.a.) P. vivax malaria transmission. Risk areas were further constrained using temperature and aridity data based upon their relationship with parasite and vector bionomics. Medical intelligence was used to refine the spatial extent of risk in specific areas where transmission was reported to be absent (e.g., large urban areas and malaria-free islands). The PAR under each level of transmission was then derived by combining the categorical risk map with a high resolution population surface adjusted to 2009. The exclusion of large Duffy negative populations in Africa from the PAR totals was achieved using independent modelling of the gene frequency of this genetic trait. It was estimated that 2.85 billion people were exposed to some risk of P. vivax transmission in 2009, with 57.1% of them living in areas of unstable transmission. The vast majority (2.59 billion, 91.0%) were located in Central and South East (CSE) Asia, whilst the remainder were located in America (0.16 billion, 5.5%) and in the Africa+ region (0.10 billion, 3.5%). Despite evidence of ubiquitous risk of P. vivax infection in Africa, the very high prevalence of Duffy negativity throughout Central and West Africa reduced the PAR estimates substantially. Conclusions After more than a century of development and control, P. vivax remains more widely distributed than P. falciparum and is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the 2.85 billion people living at risk of infection, the majority of whom are in the tropical belt of CSE Asia. The probability of infection is reduced massively across Africa by the frequency of the Duffy negative trait, but transmission does occur on the continent and is a concern for Duffy positive locals and travellers. The final map provides the spatial limits on which the endemicity of P. vivax transmission can be mapped to support future
The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis
Marianne E Sinka, Michael J Bangs, Sylvie Manguin, Maureen Coetzee, Charles M Mbogo, Janet Hemingway, Anand P Patil, Will H Temperley, Peter W Gething, Caroline W Kabaria, Robi M Okara, Thomas Van Boeckel, H Charles J Godfray, Ralph E Harbach, Simon I Hay
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-117
Abstract: A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method.The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano.) labranchiae, An. (Ano.) messeae, An. (Ano.) sacharovi, An. (Cel.) sergentii and An. (Cel.) superpictus*. These maps are presented alongside a bionomics summary for each species relevant to its control.This paper is a second in a series of three contributions discussing the geographic distribution and bionomics of the dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria [1,2]. It deals specifically with the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East.Despite highly variable levels of transmission across Africa [3,4], the global public heath impact of P. falciparum malaria is overwhelmingly felt on this continent [5,6]. Africa contains areas with the highest entomological inoculation rates [3,7] and prevalence levels [8] globally, and thus the highest morbidity and mortality [5]. This situation arises partly because Africa has the most effective and efficient DVS of human malaria [9,10]: An. gambiae (sensu stricto - herein, referred to as 'An. gambiae'; it is not necessary to use 'sensu stricto' (or the abbreviation 's.s.') when there is no doubt that
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