Abstract:
We consider the neutrino (and antineutrino) flavors arriving at Earth for neutrinos produced in the annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Sun's core. Solar-matter effects on the flavor propagation of the resulting $\agt$ GeV neutrinos are studied analytically within a density-matrix formalism. Matter effects, including mass-state level-crossings, influence the flavor fluxes considerably. The exposition herein is somewhat pedagogical, in that it starts with adiabatic evolution of single flavors from the Sun's center, with $\theta_{13}$ set to zero, and progresses to fully realistic processing of the flavor ratios expected in WIMP decay, from the Sun's core to the Earth. In the fully realistic calculation, non-adiabatic level-crossing is included, as are possible nonzero values for $\theta_{13}$ and the CP-violating phase $\delta$. Due to resonance enhancement in matter, nonzero values of $\theta_{13}$ even smaller than a degree can noticeably affect flavor propagation. Both normal and inverted neutrino-mass hierarchies are considered. Our main conclusion is that measuring flavor ratios (in addition to energy spectra) of $\agt$ GeV solar neutrinos can provide discrinination between WIMP models. In particular, we demonstrate the flavor differences at Earth for neutrinos from the two main classes of WIMP final states, namely $W^+ W^-$ and 95% $b \bar{b}$ + 5% $\tau^+\tau^-$. Conversely, if WIMP properties were to be learned from production in future accelerators, then the flavor ratios of $\agt$ GeV solar neutrinos might be useful for inferring $\theta_{13}$ and the mass hierarchy.

Objectives:
Evaluation of radiation efficiency of dual source high-pitch (DSHP) chest CT in
comparison to single source technique with special regards to individual
patient anatomy. Methods: 150 consecutive patients who underwent chest CT with
automated tube current modulation were evaluated retrospectively and divided
into three study groups, each with an equal quantity of 50 patients (DSHP vs.
single source 128 slices vs. single source 16 slices). By using a dedicated
workstation, volumetric analyses of each of the scanned anatomic area were
performed and correlated to the individual dose length product (DLP). The
calculated result was defined as dose efficiency. Results: DLP was 203 mGycm
(DSHP), vs. 269 mGycm (single source) vs. 273 mGycm (16 slice CT). The total
patient volume was lowest in the dual source group with 18956.3 cm^{3} (vs. 22481.2 cm^{3} vs. 22133.8 cm^{3}). With regards to the
DLP, the calculated dose efficiency of dual source CT was better than the 128
slice CT (p = 0.045) and the 16 slice CT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: DSHP CT
has considerably better dose efficiency compared to 16 slice CT. Compared to
128 slice single source technique, the high-pitch mode does not cause any dose
penalty when performing chest CT.

Abstract:
The Ordovician fossil record provides evidence of the most rapid, long sustained burst of biotic diversification in the history of marine life on Earth (The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, Webby et alii, 2004). Radiation events during Early and Middle Ordovician times caused the tripling of marine biodiversity and the establishment of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic evolutionary faunas which have the greater relevance to present-day biotic communities. Throughout the Ordovician, great ecological changes were associated with intense tectonic and volcanic activity and major reorganization of the plate-tectonic global assembly.

Abstract:
We investigate the stability of synchronized states in delay-coupled networks where synchronization takes place in groups of different local dynamics or in cluster states in networks with identical local dynamics. Using a master stability approach, we find that the master stability function shows a discrete rotational symmetry depending on the number of groups. The coupling matrices that permit solutions on group or cluster synchronization manifolds show a very similar symmetry in their eigenvalue spectrum, which helps to simplify the evaluation of the master stability function. Our theory allows for the characterization of stability of different patterns of synchronized dynamics in networks with multiple delay times, multiple coupling functions, but also with multiple kinds of local dynamics in the networks' nodes. We illustrate our results by calculating stability in the example of delay-coupled semiconductor lasers and in a model for neuronal spiking dynamics.

Abstract:
The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

Abstract:
The
vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations
at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). As distinguished from
conventional theories, such as that of the Standard Model, the present revised
quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) includes the ZPE in its field equations.
This leads to new results far beyond those obtained from conventional theories
such as those by Dirac and Higgs. Thus, the present theory results in massive
elementary particles from the beginning, being independent of the theory by
Higgs. This paper describes the background and results of RQED, summarizing the
weak points of conventional theories, the unification of included fundamental
concepts, the present basic field equations, new obtained results, and special
points of experimental support. In other words, the new points stressed in this
paper are in particular the relation between a nonzero electric field
divergence in the vacuum and the ZPE, and a number of new experimentally
supported results due to a nonzero ZPE energy density in the same state.

Abstract:
Both
theory and experiments indicate that the vacuum is not a state of empty space,
but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations at a lowest nonzero level, the
Zero Point Energy (ZPE). This debouches into considerable changes of
fundamental physics, as shown by a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED)
applied to elementary particles, and by a revised ZPE frequency spectrum
applied to the expanding universe. The Standard Model based on a vacuum state
of empty space is thus replaced by RQED, thereby resulting in massive
elementary particles from the beginning, independently of the theory by Higgs. Also
the basic properties of the Higgs-like particle detected at CERN can be
reproduced by RQED. It further leads to new fundamental results beyond the
theories by Dirac and Higgs, such as to a deduced value of the elementary net
charge, magnetic confinement of charged particle configurations, intrinsic
local particle charges, photon spin with a very small but nonzero photon rest
mass, and needle-like particle-wave properties which contribute to the
understanding of the photoelectric effect and two-slit experiments. The real
macroscopic pressure due to the revised ZPE frequency distribution further
influences the dynamics of the expanding universe, by the ZPE photon pressure
gradient acting as dark energy, and the ZPE photon energy density acting as
dark matter. This results in a model being consistent with the observed scale,
the rate of expansion, and the stability of a flat expanding observable
universe.

Abstract:
A theory elaborated by the author on revised quantum electrodynamics (RQED) is elucidated in a condensed form on special important points. The latter concerns the basic electromagnetic field equations in a vacuum state, the connection of this state with the Zero Point Energy (ZPE), the procedure of quantization, steady states of particle models, the concept of the individual photon, and examples on experimental support of the theory.

Abstract:
The frequency spectrum of the cosmical Zero Point Energy (ZPE) and its total density are so far unknown in their details. In the present complementary investigation, a revised theory forms the basis for studies of this concept in two respects. It first applies to the observable universe considered as an entity, as well as to included subregions such as the galaxies with supermassive black holes. Second, experiments are proposed on the maximum Casimir force arising between two metal plates of different materials and with a vanishing air gap in their spacing. This serves the purpose of making an indirect determination of the ZPE energy density in the laboratory, i.e. at the Earth’s orbit. The ZPE energy density is interpreted as dark matter density and its pressure gradient as dark energy force density.

Abstract:
This theory aims beyond the possibilities being available from the Standard Model. Examples are given by the directly obtained rest masses of the elementary particles, the deduced values of the elementary charge and of the mass of the boson detected by CERN which are close to their experimental data, and by an incorporated spin of the photon.