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LBW could be used to determine the contrast material dose and rate during MDCT. The aim
of this study is to test the accuracy of a technique for estimation of lean
body weight (LBW) from a single multi-detector row computed tomographic (MDCT)
abdominal image, using a bioelectrical body composition analyzer scale as the
reference standard. CT images of 21 patients with previously measured LBW
(mLBW) were processed using computer-assisted, vendor-specific software
(Advantage Windows 4.2; GE Healthcare, Inc). For each transverse image, a
fat-fraction was automatically measured as the number of fat pixels (-200 to -50 HU) divided by the
total number of pixels having an attenuation value ≥-200 HU. Estimated LBW (eLBW) of five single
contiguous sections was calculated in each of three abdominal regions (upper
abdomen, mid abdomen and pelvis) by multiplying TBW by (1 – fat-fraction).
Bland-Altman plot with limits of agreement was used to assess agreement between
mLBW and eLBW. The mean mLBW for all patients was 56 kg (range, 39 - 75 kg).
Mean differences and limits of agreement between mLBW and eLBW measurements for
the upper abdomen, mid abdomen and pelvis reported were -8.9 kg (-25.6 kg, +7.5 kg), -10.6 kg (-27.7 kg, +6.4 kg), and
+0.5 kg (-12.8 kg,
+13.8 kg) respectively. eLBW deriving directly from a transverse CT image of
the pelvis can accurately predict mLBW.
A new approach to solving two of the cosmological constant problems (CCPs) is proposed by introducing the Abbott-Deser (AD) method for defining Killing charges in asymptotic de Sitter space as the only consistent means for defining the ground-state vacuum for the CCP. That granted, Einstein gravity will also need to be modified at short-distance nuclear scales, using instead a nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor theory of gravitation that provides for the existence of QCD’s two-phase vacuum having two different zero-point energy states as a function of temperature. Einstein gravity alone cannot accomplish this. The scalar field will be taken from bag theory in hadron physics, and the origin of the bag constant B is accounted for by gravity’s CC as B—noting that the Higgs mechanism does not account for either the curved-space origin of λ or the mass of composite hadrons. A small Hubble-scale graviton mass mg～10-33eV naturally appears external to the hadron bag, induced by λ≠0. This mass is unobservable and gravitationally gauge-dependent. It is shown to be related to the cosmological event horizon in asymptotic de Sitter space.