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A new approach to solving two of the cosmological constant problems (CCPs) is proposed by introducing the Abbott-Deser (AD) method for defining Killing charges in asymptotic de Sitter space as the only consistent means for defining the ground-state vacuum for the CCP. That granted, Einstein gravity will also need to be modified at short-distance nuclear scales, using instead a nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor theory of gravitation that provides for the existence of QCD’s two-phase vacuum having two different zero-point energy states as a function of temperature. Einstein gravity alone cannot accomplish this. The scalar field will be taken from bag theory in hadron physics, and the origin of the bag constant B is accounted for by gravity’s CC as B—noting that the Higgs mechanism does not account for either the curved-space origin of λ or the mass of composite hadrons. A small Hubble-scale graviton mass mg～10-33eV naturally appears external to the hadron bag, induced by λ≠0. This mass is unobservable and gravitationally gauge-dependent. It is shown to be related to the cosmological event horizon in asymptotic de Sitter space.
A novel, cost effective, sonochemical-hydrothermal technique was used for the deposition of nanosized anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) onto single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This technique is described and the characterization of the synthesized TiO2-SWCNTs is reported. The characterization techniques employed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the characterization the size and morphology of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (deposited on the SWCNTs) are reported. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the created TiO2 nanoparticles are chemically attached to the SWCNTs. Also, an important correlation between calculated TiO2 crystal size and the red shifts in the lowest Raman TiO2 (E.g.) predominate peak is reported. The synthesized TiO2-SWCNTs have potential for large scale production and application in a variety of new technologies such as clean energy power generation devices, electrical storage devices, photocatalysts, and sensors.