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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167616 matches for " Thomas K Baldwin "
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Protecting a solid-state spin from decoherence using dressed spin states
D. Andrew Golter,Thomas K. Baldwin,Hailin Wang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.237601
Abstract: Dressed spin states, a spin coupling to continuous radiation fields, can fundamentally change how a spin responds to magnetic fluctuations. Using dressed spin states, we were able to protect an electron spin in diamond from decoherence. Dressing a spin with resonant microwaves at a coupling rate near 1 MHz leads to a 50 times reduction in the linewidth of the spin transition, limited by transit-time broadening. The spin decoherence and the energy level structure of the dressed states were probed with optical coherent-population-trapping processes. Compared with dynamical decoupling, where effects of the bath are averaged out at specific times, the dressed state provides a continuous protection from decoherence.
Russell on Memory
Thomas Baldwin
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 2001,
Abstract: Russell famously propounded scepticism about memory in The Analysis of Mind (1921). As he there acknowledged, one way to counter this sceptical position is to hold that memory involves direct acquaintance with past, and this is in fact a thesis Russell had advanced in The Problems of Philosophy (1911). Indeed he had there used the case of memory to develop a sophisticated falibilist, non-sceptical, epistemology. By 1921, however, Russell had rejected the early conception of memory as incompatible with the neutral monism he now affirmed. In its place he argued that memory involves a distinctive type of belief whose content is given by imagery. Russell's language here is off-putting but without much distortion his later position can be interpreted as an early formulation of a functionalist theory of mind based on a causal theory of mental representation. Thus interpreted it provides the basis for a different response to Russell's sceptical thesis.
A hundred years of Principia Ethica
Thomas Baldwin
Ethic@ : an International Journal for Moral Philosophy , 2003,
OmniMapFree: A unified tool to visualise and explore sequenced genomes
John Antoniw, Andrew M Beacham, Thomas K Baldwin, Martin Urban, Jason J Rudd, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-447
Abstract: We have developed a generic software which permits users to view a single genome in entirety either within its chromosome or supercontig context within a single window. This software permits the genome to be displayed at any scales and with any features. Different data types and data sets are displayed onto the genome, which have been acquired from other types of studies including classical genetics, forward and reverse genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics and improved annotation from alternative sources. In each display, different types of information can be overlapped, then retrieved in the desired combinations and scales and used in follow up analyses. The displays generated are of publication quality.OmniMapFree provides a unified, versatile and easy-to-use software tool for studying a single genome in association with all the other datasets and data types available for the organism.In the late 1990s, the first fully sequenced genome of a eukaryotic organism emerged as a result of a huge community effort. The annotated genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subsequently published [1] and a comprehensive genome browser has gradually evolved [2,3]. The success of this whole genome sequencing (WGS) project using the Sanger method, paved the way for other model species as well as industrially, agriculturally and medically important species to be nominated for WGS [4]. Within a few years and following the development of several next generation sequencing technologies, the number of eukaryotic species for which complete or near completely sequenced genomes became available steadily rose [5]. Also for the species initially sequenced other strains with different biological properties and closely related species have now been sequenced or nominated for sequencing to provide important clusters of genomic information. In agricultural, environmental and medical research, many species of interest have small to medium sized genomes. For example, free living and pathogenic fu
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay  [PDF]
Ramdeo Seepaul, Bisoondat Macoon, K. Raja Reddy, Brian Baldwin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.22015
Abstract: Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of geNotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and pheNological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virga-tum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across geNotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although intra-specific variation exists among geNotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass geNotypes and to classify geNotypes for temperature tolerance. Strati-fied seeds of each geNotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10oC to 45oC under a constant light intensity of 35 µmol m-2 s-1 for 12 h d-1. Germination was recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among geNotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1oC for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0oC for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among geNotypes. GeNotypes were classified as sensitive (‘Cave-in-rock’, ‘Dacotah’, ‘Expresso’, ‘Forestburg’, ‘Kanlow’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Trailblazer’, and ‘Warrior’), intermediate (‘Alamo’, ‘Blackwell’, ‘Carthage’, ‘Shawnee’, and ‘Shelter’) and tolerant (‘Summer’) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, geNotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter, and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Warrior), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal temperature estimates would be useful to improve switchgrass models for field applications. Additionally, the identified cold- and heat-tolerant geNotypes can be selected for niche environments and in switchgrass breeding programs to develop new geNotypes for low and high temperature environments.
Characterisation of the Fusarium graminearum-Wheat Floral Interaction
Neil A. Brown,Chris Bass,Thomas K. Baldwin,Huaigu Chen,Fabien Massot,Pierre W. C. Carion,Martin Urban,Allison M. L. van de Meene,Kim E. Hammond-Kosack
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/626345
Abstract: Fusarium Ear Blight is a destructive fungal disease of cereals including wheat and can contaminate the crop with various trichothecene mycotoxins. This investigation has produced a new β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter strain that facilitates the quick and easy assessment of plant infection. The constitutively expressed gpdA:GUS strain of Fusarium graminearum was used to quantify the overall colonisation pattern. Histochemical and biochemical approaches confirmed, in susceptible wheat ear infections, the presence of a substantial phase of symptomless fungal growth. Separate analyses demonstrated that there was a reduction in the quantity of physiologically active hyphae as the wheat ear infection proceeded. A simplified linear system of rachis infection was then utilised to evaluate the expression of several TRI genes by RT-qPCR. Fungal gene expression at the advancing front of symptomless infection was compared with the origin of infection in the rachis. This revealed that TRI gene expression was maximal at the advancing front and supports the hypothesis that the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol plays a role in inhibiting plant defences in advance of the invading intercellular hyphae. This study has also demonstrated that there are transcriptional differences between the various phases of fungal infection and that these differences are maintained as the infection proceeds. 1. Introduction Fusarium Ear Blight (FEB) disease also referred to as Fusarium head scab (http://www.scabusa.org/) is a destructive fungal disease that has the potential to devastate wheat, barley, rye, oat, or maize crops just weeks before harvest. All of the major wheat producing countries (http://faostat.fao.org/) have reported serious and repeated FEB outbreaks in the past decade, making the impact of Fusarium infections a global issue. This worldwide re-emergence is believed to be driven by changes in climate and agronomic practices. CIMMYT describes FEB as a major limiting factor to wheat production across the world [1]. Over the last 10 years, the average FEB incidence in UK wheat fields was 39% (http://www.cropmonitor.co.uk/). Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a filamentous ascomycete and one of the main causal agents of FEB throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas [1, 2]. Besides dramatically reducing yield, grain quality is affected through the selective loss of albumin and gluten proteins [3]. The grains harvested from an infected crop are also contaminated with various fungal mycotoxins often making them unsuitable and/or unsafe for human consumption, animal
Analysis of Some Important Forage Quality Attributes of Southeastern Wildrye (Elymus glabriflorus) Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Jason Brett Rushing, Uttam K. Saha, Rocky Lemus, Leticia Sonon, Brian S. Baldwin
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.79060
Abstract: Southeastern wildrye (Elymus glabriflorus, Vasey ex L.H. Dewey) is a cool-season, perennial grass native to southeastern United States. Recently, there is a growing interest in its development as a grazing and haying forage crop due to its wide area of adaptation across this region. Consequently, there is a great need for the evaluation of its forage quality by rapid, but accurate analytical methods like Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). In this study, acceptable NIRS calibration models were developed for: dry matter, DM (n = 113, R2 = 0.904, RSCD = 2.54, RSCIQ = 4.65); crude protein, CP (n = 113, R2 = 0.974, RSCD = 5.16, RSCIQ = 5.92); acid detergent fiber, ADF (n = 116, R2 = 0.896, RSCD = 2.35, RSCIQ = 1.28); neutral detergent fiber, NDF (n = 118, R2 = 0.934, RSCD = 2.53, RSCIQ = 3.38); digestible dry matter, DDM (n = 116, R2 = 0.895, RSCD = 2.36, RSCIQ = 1.35); dry matter intake, DMI (n = 115, R2 = 0.924, RSCD = 2.40, RSCIQ = 2.53); and relative feed value, RFV (n = 114, R2 = 0.932, RSCD = 2.94, RSCIQ = 2.81). Prediction of independent validation sets yielded good agreement between the NIRS predicted values and the laboratory reference values for each of: DM (n = 53, R2 = 0.831, RPD = 2.45, RPIQ = 4.24); CP (n = 57, R2 = 0.967, RPD = 5.37, RPIQ = 7.16); ADF (n = 49, R2 = 0.895, RPD = 2.97, RPIQ = 1.51); NDF (n = 53, R2 = 0.928, RPD = 3.75, RPIQ = 4.22); digestible dry matter, DDM (n = 55, R2 = 0.860, RSCD = 265, RSCIQ = 1.15); dry matter intake, DMI (n = 156, R2 = 0.845, RSCD = 2.48, RSCIQ = 2.11); and relative feed value, RFV (n = 55, R2 = 0.916, RSCD = 3.45, RSCIQ = 3.04) contents, indicating that all seven calibration models had good quantitative information. Therefore, precise, accurate, and rapid analysis of these important forage quality attributes of southeastern wildrye can be routinely done using the developed NIRS calibration models.
Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in adult Boer goats
Worku Mulumebet,Franco R.,Baldwin K.
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/abs0901135w
Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L.) for controlling gastroin-testinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3%) garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml) during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p<0.05). Garlic extract did not reduce fecal egg counts or alleviate anemia associated with H. contortus infection at the concentrations tested (p>0.05). However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml), goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; p<0.05). Packed cell volume and FAMACHA scores did not show significant changes. These studies have implications for the control of Coccidia in goats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.
Addressing Reported Pro-Apoptotic Functions of NF-κB: Targeted Inhibition of Canonical NF-κB Enhances the Apoptotic Effects of Doxorubicin
Brian K. Bednarski, Albert S. Baldwin, Hong Jin Kim
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006992
Abstract: The ability of the transcription factor NF-κB to upregulate anti-apoptotic proteins has been linked to the chemoresistance of solid tumors to standard chemotherapy. In contrast, recent studies have proposed that, in response to doxorubicin, NF-κB can be pro-apoptotic through repression of anti-apoptotic target genes. However, there is little evidence analyzing the outcome of NF-κB inhibition on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in studies describing pro-apoptotic NF-κB activity. In this study, we further characterize the activation of NF-κB in response to doxorubicin and evaluate its role in chemotherapy-induced cell death in sarcoma cells where NF-κB is reported to be pro-apoptotic. Doxorubicin treatment in U2OS cells induced canonical NF-κB activity as evidenced by increased nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated p65 at serine 536 and increased DNA–binding activity. Co-treatment with a small molecule IKKβ inhibitor, Compound A, abrogated this response. RT–PCR evaluation of anti-apoptotic gene expression revealed that doxorubicin-induced transcription of cIAP2 was inhibited by Compound A, while doxorubicin-induced repression of other anti-apoptotic genes was unaffected by Compound A or siRNA to p65. Furthermore, the combination of doxorubicin and canonical NF-κB inhibition with Compound A or siRNA to p65 resulted in decreased cell viability measured by trypan blue staining and MTS assay and increased apoptosis measured by cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase 3 when compared to doxorubicin alone. Our results demonstrate that doxorubicin-induced canonical NF-κB activity associated with phosphorylated p65 is anti-apoptotic in its function and that doxorubicin-induced repression of anti-apoptotic genes occurs independent of p65. Therefore, combination therapies incorporating NF-κB inhibitors together with standard chemotherapies remains a viable method to improve the clinical outcomes in patients with advanced stage malignancies.
Histopathological changes in the human larynx following expanded polytetrafluroethylene (Gore-Tex?) implantation
K Rajkumar, HS Khalil, M Elloy, E Sheffield, DL Baldwin
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6815-5-1
Abstract: The histological findings in a laryngectomy specimen of a patient previously implanted with e PTFE for medialization of a paralyzed vocal fold following excision of a vagal neurofibroma were studied.Histopathology revealed a mild foreign-body giant cell granulomatous reaction with some associated fibrosis. The granulomatous response was limited to the periphery of the Gore-Tex and although it closely followed the profile of the material it did not encroach into or significantly break up the material. There was no significant neutrophilic or lymphocytic inflammation.Our findings are consistent with the animal models confirming that Gore-Tex implantation does not result in a significant granulomatous reaction in the human larynx over a 13-month period. Moreover, there is no evidence of resorption or infection. Further, the lack of lymphocytes in association with the granulomas indicates that there is no significant immunological hypersensitivity. Histologically, the slight permeation by connective tissue is similar to that seen in Gore-Tex vascular and cardiac implants. The degree of the slight giant cell response appears to be dependent on the profile of the material; a sharp edge incited more of a response than a flat surface.Unilateral vocal fold paralysis is symptomatic when it results in failure of the mobile vocal fold to approximate the paralyzed vocal fold during adduction. Despite the lack of movement, the paralyzed vocal fold will often contact the contra lateral mobile vocal fold permitting adequate glottic closure [1].Medialization laryngoplasty is a common procedure used to restore glottic competence. This procedure was popularized by Ishiki and initially used in patients with vocal fold paralysis. In recent years, the indications for this procedure have expanded to include most forms of glottic incompetence, including the use of bilateral medialization in mobile vocal folds for vocal fold bowing and atrophy [2].Although medialization is now widely accept
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