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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30986 matches for " Thomas Drosdowski "
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Measuring Germany’s Transition to a Green Economy  [PDF]
Christian Lutz, Roland Zieschank, Thomas Drosdowski
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2017.81001
Abstract: This paper reports on results of the study entitled “Green economy: Measuring sustainable welfare using SEEA data. It contributes to measuring the progress towards a green economy and to making it accessible for policymaking in Germany. The concept used to measure the green economy looks at six dimensions: 1) use of natural resources and environmental damage caused, 2) natural capital, 3) environmental quality of life, 4) green economy: Economic dimension and fields of action, 5) policies: Institutional framework and measures, and 6) background information on economic and social development. For each dimension the concept includes indicators. The concept fulfils two main purposes: Firstly, it is designed to monitor progress towards a green economy ex-post and secondly some of the proposed indicators can be used to assess policy options ex-ante. Scenario analysis (PANTA RHEI model) is used to apply the concept to Germany’s energy transition. Many indicators will improve until 2030 despite some trade-offs.
Global Chemical Leasing Award 2010  [PDF]
Thomas Jakl
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.21003
Abstract: The Global Chemical Leasing Award was presented for the first time in March 2010 to organizations, companies and individuals for their outstanding efforts to enhance the visibility of Chemical Leasing around the world and reward successful Chemical Leasing initiatives and implementation. Chemical Leasing is the new business model in the field of sound use of chemicals, initiated and subsidized by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, the Environment and Water Management and jointly promoted with UNIDO. The decisive new aspect of this business model, which distinguishes itself from the traditional supplier-user relation, is to make the service performed by the chemical substance the basis of payment for the business operation, e.g. according to cleaned area, treated number of pieces, or performed hours of operation (= unit of payment). In this way an efficient use of chemicals is in the interest of all parties involved. The award was jointly organized by UNIDO and the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, the Environment and Water Management. Organizations, companies and individuals worldwide were able to take part in the competition. The cases of the winners are described in detail and show the applicability of Chemical Leasing to the different industrial processes. Among these are water clarification and oil dehydration in Colombia, mineral water and beverage production in Serbia, oil & gas exploration and production and specifically deep gas field development projects in different places, industrial cleaning with solvents in Austria and textile dyeing in India.
The Effect of Different Movement Exercises on Cognitive and Motor Abilities  [PDF]
Monika Thomas
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.24030
Abstract: The influence of physical activity on motor and cognitive performance has been approved in several studies. However, it is still unclear which functions are affected, and why. It also remains unknown what type of physical training is best suitable. The present study focuses on special movement aspects based on the Brain Gym? program. Four groups of subjects (n = 64) participated in two experiments with pre-post intervention design. In experiment 1 two groups of subjects were exposed to a sensorimotor adaptation study design by executing center out pointing movements under distorted visual feedback conditions with their dominant and non-dominant arm to test for intermanual transfer (IMT) as pre- and posttest. The intervention in both groups consisted of specified movement exercises with the right and left extremities: participants of Experimental group executed movements crossing the body midline and participants of Control group movements without crossing the body midline. Results showed a decreased retention of adaptation but larger IMT for Experimental group during posttest. We conclude that movements crossing the body midline impede retention but enhance IMT of sensorimotor adaptation. A potential relationship to an improvement of communication between the cerebral hemispheres evoked by the movement exercises crossing the body midline is rather speculative. In experiment 2 two groups were exposed to the d2-test measuring concentration and attention and a dice-test testing for visual-spatial abilities as pre- and posttest. The interventions were similar to experiment 1. Results yielded no differences between groups such that different effects of both interventions could not have been shown.
Russell’s Bismarck: Acquaintance Theory and Historical Distance  [PDF]
Thomas Aiello
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.21003
Abstract: The role of acquaintance in Bertrand Russell’s theory of descriptions is antithetical and, indeed, antagonistic toward the practice and assumptions of history. In his 1910 paper “Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description,” Russell attempts to reconcile direct acquaintance (or its inability to determine the personal self of others) with a descriptive knowledge that is both logical and personal. Russell tries to reconcile the internal and external worlds, attempting to explain access to impersonal knowledge inside a framework that doesn’t allow acquaintance with physical objects—he distorts the historical space between researcher and subject. In so doing, he argues for the superiority of acquaintance as an arbiter of knowledge, narrowly avoiding solipsism and wrongly devaluing the most basic of historiograhpical assumptions. His conception creates false historical goals and distorts the space of historical distance, illustrated in this paper through the American slavery studies of Herbert Aptheker, Stanley Elkins, and Kenneth Stampp.
Glucose initially inhibits and later stimulates blood ROS generation  [PDF]
Thomas Stief
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.31003
Abstract:

Background: Glucose is the main substrate for the generation of NADPH, the cofactor of the oxidative burst enzyme NADPH-oxidase of blood neutrophils. Changes in blood glucose are thus expected to modify the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The new blood ROS generation assay (BRGA) quantifies ROS changes induced by blood glucose concentrations as they are found in diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: Citrated or EDTA blood of 6 healthy donors were analyzed in the BRGA: 10 μl sample in black polystyrene F-microwells (Brand 781608) were incubated in triplicate with 125 μl Hanks’ balanced salt solution, 40 μl 0 - 200 mM glucose in 0.9% NaCl (final added conc.: 0 - 41 mM; final basal glucose conc.: about4 mM), 10 μl5 mMluminol, and 10 μl zymosan A (final conc.: 1.9 μg/ml) in 0.9% NaCl. The plates were measured within 0 - 250 min (37) in a photons-multiplyer microtiter plate luminometer (LUmo) with an integration time of 1 s. Results: Up to about 30 min reaction time the mean ROS generation was 50% inhibited by about1 mMadded glucose (= approx. IC50). At ≥80 min reaction time (possibly necessary for full phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the substrate metabolized by G6P-dehydrogenase to generate NADPH, the cofactor of the NADPH-oxidase) the mean ROS generation approximately doubled at about1 mMadded glucose (= approx. SC200) in citrated blood. Discussion: Elevated glucose concentrations not only increase systemic thrombin generation, they can also diminish cellular fibrinolysis and increase systemic inflammation, resulting in a chronic pro-thrombotic state. The fascinating importance of NADPH-oxidases not only in phagocytes but also in the beta cells of pancreas points towards a new pathogenesis explication of diabetes mellitus type 1: whatever stimulus (e.g. a pancreas-tropic virus) could activate the beta cell’s autodestructive NADPH-oxidase.

Regulating Liquidity Risks within “Institutional Protection Schemes”  [PDF]
Thomas Stern
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.53020
Abstract: During an early phase of the financial crisis (2007), many financial institutionsin spite of adequate capital levelsfaced heavy difficulties because they didn’t manage their liquidity profile in a prudent manner. Suddenly the crisis reminded the respective sector on the importance of liquidity to the proper functioning of financial markets. In front of the times of crisis, asset markets were broad and deep, funding was readily available at low cost. The quick change in market conditions showed how fast liquidity can dry up, and that illiquidity can endure for an extended period of time. The banks faced severe stress, which required actions by central banks toone the one handkeep alive both the functioning of capital and money markets andon the other hand support individual banks or banking groups, which lost their most important funding sources. The impact of a liquidity crisis broadly differs among jurisdiction, markets and concrete market participants. Empirically banks, which were very reliant on interbank funding and closely connected to other financial institutions, suffered during the crisis more than e.g. banks with a business model in favour of funding by retail deposits and holding sufficient Liquidity buffers. Especially in Austria and Germany, there is a phenomenon rising of so called “Institutional Protection Schemes” (in the following: “IPS”). The establishment of an IPS means the foundation of a “contractual or statutory liability arrangement which protects those institutions and in particular ensures their liquidity and solvency to avoid bankruptcy where necessary” (Article 113 para 7 CRR). Currently it seems that a huge part of Austrian banks (about 800 institutions in total) will apply for a membership in an IPS. Given that banks within the same IPS are strongly connected and the role of an IPS is to ensure the ongoing solvency and liquidity of its member institutions, such banking networks may create special needs for liquidity risk management and supervision. This paper deals with the question whether IPS’ are sufficiently regulated by CRR and CRD IV, focusing on the topic liquidity and liquidity risk. As mentioned, the basic notion of Basel III focuses on banking groups,
Indoor Air Environment—Hygienic Factors and Limits  [PDF]
Thomas Alsmo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.712140
Abstract:
Complaints on the indoor environment of the residents in recent decades have become a common problem in the Swedish housing. The buildings themselves are said to be the cause of problems, and it is given a vague picture of both the exposure and the effect of the problems. The symptoms that residents and users state are often common in the population such as headache, fatigue, mucosal disorders and skin problems. It must be considered that the air that people routinely inhale contains impurities of various kinds, both in- and outdoors. An important source of contamination indoors is the microorganisms that are pathogenic, so called agents. Examples of infectious agents are viruses, fungi, bacteria and protozoa. The purpose of this project is to examine whether a physical measurement is possible to obtain for identifying a possible threshold level of air pollution in the indoor environment. In this study, carried out through physical measurements, the results show major deficiencies in the Swedish school environment. If we study the emissions in the important health-related size range of particles larger than 5.0 microns, before and after measures, the environmental benefits are clarified since over 90% of contaminants larger than 5.0 microns have been eliminated.
Granulocyte Colony—Stimulating Factor Multiplies Normal Blood ROS Generation at Less than 1 μg/l  [PDF]
Thomas Stief
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2018.81001
Abstract: Background: The neutrophils (PMN) are our main blood cells to combat fungi, bacteria, and fibrin. For normal function, an activated PMN generates a certain concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If the generated blood ROS concentration is too low, then fungi, bacteria or fibrin might threaten the life of the patient, and it could be of great medical interest to stimulate PMN by physiologic drugs. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a cell hormone that increases the cell number of PMN and that stimulates the individual PMN. The blood ROS generation assay (BRGA) is an innovative physiologic test to monitor the ROS generation of PMN in blood. Here the ROS generating action of G-CSF on normal PMN is quantified. Material and Methods: 40 μl 0 - 10.3 ng/ml (final conc.) G-CSF (in 5% human albumin) in black Brand? 781608 high quality polystyrene F-microwells was incubated in triplicate with 125 μl Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS; modified without phenol red) and 10 μl normal citrated blood. Immediately (BRGA) or after 60 min (BRGA-60-) 10 μl 5 mM luminol sodium salt in 0.9% NaCl and 10 μl 0 or 36 μg/ml zymosan A in 0.9% NaCl was added. The photons were counted within 0 - 318 min (37°C) in a photons-multiplying microtiter plate luminometer. At about 0.5 t-maxn (0.5 fold the time to normal maximum) the approx. SC200 of G-CSF was determined. Results and Discussion: The approx. SC200 of G-CSF on normal blood ROS generation was 0.2 μg/l (=20 IU/ml). In clinical situations where an increased blood ROS generation is pharmacologically required, few micrograms of G-CSF could be a sufficient dosage for an adult patient. The BRGA helps to find out the correct stimulating G-CSF dosage for each individual. An enhanced PMN
The Serendipity Theorem for an Endogenous Open Economy Growth Model  [PDF]
Thomas Ziesemer
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.84049
Abstract: A Samuelsonian serendipity theorem for an endogenous growth model is derived. The formula for optimal population growth rate deviates from those of the model with exogenous population growth rates in a third best endogenous growth model of the Lucas type with imperfect international capital movements and human capital externalities. Calibration shows that the effect of variation of the exogenous population growth rates on other variables and the deviation of population growth rates from its optimal value are small. The reason is that labour supply, interest rates and technical change are endogenous. There is not much of an incentive for population growth policy unless Frisch parameters change with ageing.
The Thermal Radiation of the Atmosphere and Its Role in the So-Called Greenhouse Effect  [PDF]
Thomas Allmendinger
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.82014
Abstract: Knowledge about thermal radiation of the atmosphere is rich in hypotheses and theories but poor in empiric evidence. Thereby, the Stefan-Boltzmann relation is of central importance in atmosphere physics, and holds the status of a natural law. However, its empirical foundation is little, tracing back to experiments made by Dulong and Petit two hundred years ago. Originated by Stefan at the end of the 19th century, and theoretically founded afterwards by Boltzmann, it delivers the absolute temperature of a blackbody—or rather of a solid opaque body (SOB)—as a result of the incident solar radiation intensity, the emitted thermal radiation of this body, and the counter-radiation of the atmosphere. Thereby, a similar character of the blackbody radiation—describable by the expression σ·T4—and the atmospheric counter-radiation was assumed. But this appears quite abstruse and must be questioned, not least since no pressure-dependency is provided. Thanks to the author’s recently published work—proposing novel measuring methods—, the possibility was opened-up not only to find an alternative approach for the counter-radiation of the atmosphere, but also to verify it by measurements. This approach was ensued from the observation that the IR-radiative emission of gases is proportional to the pressure and to the square root of the absolute temperature, which could be bolstered by applying the kinetic gas theory. The here presented verification of the modified counter-radiation term A·p·T0.5 in the Stefan-Boltzmann relation was feasible using a direct caloric method for determining the solar absorption coefficients of coloured aluminium-plates and the respective limiting temperatures under direct solar irradiation. For studying the pressure dependency, the experiments were carried out at locations with different altitudes. For the so-called atmospheric emission constant A an approximate value of 22 Wm-2 bar-1 K-0.5 was found. In the non-steady-state, the total thermal emission power of the soil is given by the difference between its blackbody radiation and the counter-radiation of the atmosphere. This relation explains to a considerable part the fact that on mountains the atmospheric temperature is lower than on lowlands, in spite of the enhanced sunlight intensity. Thereto, the so-called greenhouse gases such as carbon-dioxide do not have any influence.
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