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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31039 matches for " Thomas Ashman "
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Using Sports Wagering Markets to Evaluate and Compare Team Winning Streaks in Sports  [PDF]
R. Alan Bowman, Thomas Ashman, James Lambrinos
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.55029
Abstract: Point spreads and money lines from sports wagering markets are used to evaluate the impressiveness of team streaks. Sports wagering data have previously been useful in assessing competitive balance in sports. Our approach was motivated by the amount of media scrutiny that accompanied the winning streak of the NBA’s Miami Heat and the point streak of the NHL’s Chicago Blackhawks which occurred simultaneously for the most part in 2013. The topic came to the forefront again with the 2014-2015 winning streak of the Atlanta Hawks. Three streaks are highlighted in our paper. The length of the streaks, the quality of the competition, injuries, and a variety of other factors were mentioned in the media but the discussion was limited to subjective opinions as no way of properly weighing relative influence of the factors was identified. Wagering markets provide an excellent source of information for making these judgments. Several complementary measures are described and the most impressive team streaks within and across professional baseball, basketball, football, and ice hockey are identified.
Globular Cluster Formation
Keith M. Ashman
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1007/10857603_1
Abstract: The discovery of young globular clusters in merging galaxies and other environments provides an opportunity to study directly the process of globular cluster formation. Empirically it appears that globular cluster formation occurs preferentially in regions in which star formation occurs at a high rate and efficiency. Further, the interstellar medium in such regions is likely to be at a higher pressure than less active star-forming environments. An additional observational clue to the globular cluster formation process is that young globular clusters have little or no mass-radius relationship. In this paper I argue that high pressure and high star-formation efficiency are responsible for current globular cluster formation. I suggest that the precursors to globular clusters are molecular clouds and that the mass-radius relationship exhibited by such clouds is wiped out by a variable star formation efficiency.
Recharge to Blue Lake and Strategies for Water Security Planning, Mount Gambier, South Australia  [PDF]
Nara Somaratne, Jeff Lawson, Glyn Ashman, Kien Nguyen
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.68073
Abstract:

Blue Lake, a volcanic crater provides municipal water supply to the city of Mount Gambier, population of 26,000. Current average annual pumping from the lake is 3.6 × 106 m3. The lake is fed by karstic unconfined Gambier Limestone aquifer. Storm water of the city discharges to the aquifer via about 400 drainage wells and three large sinkholes. Average annual storm water discharge is estimated at approximately 6.6 × 106 m3 through drainage wells and sinkholes within 16.8 km2 of the central part of the city. Chemical mass balance for calcium was used to estimate groundwater inflow to the lake at 6.3 × 106 m3, almost equal to the volume of storm water discharge and slightly higher than the previous estimates using environmental isotopes (4.8 - 6.0 × 106 m3). Considering the lake outflow volume of 2.7 × 106 m3, the net inflow to the lake equates to the current annual pumping and therefore it is considered that the current pumping rate is at the upper limit. For meeting the short-term future demand, confined aquifer water may be used and in the longerterm, an additional well field is required outside the Blue Lake capture zone, preferably to the north-east of the city. For water supply security, inflow to the lake along with water quality has to be maintained within the city. Current annual private abstraction within the capture zone is about 4.4 × 10

Globular Cluster Systems of Elliptical Galaxies
Stephen E. Zepf,Keith M. Ashman
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We review the observed properties of globular cluster systems and their implications for models of galaxy formation. Observations show that globular clusters form in gas-rich mergers, and that bimodal metallicity distributions are common in the globular cluster systems of ellipticals, with the metal-poor population more extended than the metal-rich one. These are three of the four predictions of the simple merger model of Ashman & Zepf (1992). The fourth prediction concerns the properties of the globular cluster systems of spirals, and is still to be tested by observation. Adopting Occam's razor, the confirmation of the fundamental predictions of the merger model from both young and old globular cluster systems is strong evidence that typical elliptical galaxies formed from the mergers of spiral galaxies. However, the simplifying assumptions of the Ashman-Zepf merger model limit its applicability to certain complex situations such as the formation of cD galaxies. We conclude this review by introducing new observational and theoretical programs that will further the understanding of the physical mechanisms of globular cluster and galaxy formation.
Some Constraints on The Formation of Globular Clusters
Keith M. Ashman,Stephen E. Zepf
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323133
Abstract: We explore the constraints on globular cluster formation provided by the observed conditions in starbursts where globulars are currently forming, and by the observed properties of young and old globular clusters. We note that the pressure in the ISM of starbursts and mergers implies that molecular clouds in these environments have radii similar to those of globular clusters. Such molecular clouds are therefore viable precursors to globular clusters if the star formation efficiency in the clouds is high. A high star formation efficiency may be a consequence of the high density and associated high binding energy and short dynamical timescale of molecular clouds in such environments. We also note that the apparent lack of a mass-radius relationship in young and old globular cluster systems places important constraints on globular cluster formation models. This is because molecular clouds are observed to follow a virial scaling relation between mass and radius. We suggest that a variable star formation efficiency may weaken or eliminate the mass-radius relation of molecular clouds as they fragment to form globular clusters. We attribute the absence of young globular clusters in the disks of ordinary galaxies such as the Milky Way to the relatively low ambient pressures in such systems.
IL-12 and Related Cytokines: Function and Regulatory Implications in Candida albicans Infection
Robert B. Ashman,Dipti Vijayan,Christine A. Wells
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/686597
Abstract: IL-12 is a cytokine with links to both innate and adaptive immunity systems. In mice, its deletion leads to acute susceptibility to oral infection with the yeast Candida albicans, whereas such mice are resistant to systemic disease. However, it is an essential component of the adaptive response that leads to the generation of Th1-type cytokine responses and protection against disseminated disease. This paper presents an overview of the role of IL-12 in models of systemic and mucosal infection and the possible relationships between them.
Inappropriately low aldosterone concentrations in adults with AIDS-related diarrhoea in Zambia: a study of response to fluid challenge
Trevor Kaile, Isaac Zulu, Ruth Lumayi, Neil Ashman, Paul Kelly
BMC Research Notes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-10
Abstract: At baseline, 9/12 (75%) of the patients were hyponatraemic, 10/11 (91%) were hypokalaemic, and 6/12 (50%) had undetectable aldosterone concentrations. Blood pressure and Karnofsky score rose and creatinine concentration fell in response to the infusion.Circulating aldosterone concentrations were inappropriately low and complicate the profound electrolyte deficiencies resulting from chronic diarrhoea. Management of these deficiencies needs to be more aggressive than is currently practised and consideration should be given to a formal clinical trial of mineralocorticoid replacement in these severely ill patients. If the inappropriately low aldosterone reflects a general adrenal failure, it may explain a considerable proportion of the high mortality seen both before and after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.Intestinal infection leading to diarrhoea is one of the most disabling and serious manifestations of AIDS. Although anti-retroviral therapy reduces the incidence and severity of diarrhoeal disease in HIV-infection, patients still present to Zambian hospitals with advanced disease, and mortality is still unacceptably high, even after initiating anti-retroviral therapy [1]. In our previous experience, mortality exceeds 20% per month, depending on the specific aetiological infection [2]. There have been many analyses of the spectrum of opportunistic pathogen in AIDS [3-5], but surprisingly little is known about the metabolic consequences of HIV infection in Africans.It would be anticipated that patients with persistent diarrhoea would have sodium and water depletion and hypokalaemia. During a series of studies of intestinal permeability tests using monosaccharide and disaccharide excretion ratios [6], we noted very low urine outputs in AIDS patients on the point of discharge from hospital. We then undertook fluid challenge studies in these patients, as part of which we assessed electrolyte and mineralocorticoid responses to the fluid challenge. We anticipated tha
Traumatic brain injury: future assessment tools and treatment prospects
Steven R Flanagan,Joshua B Cantor,Teresa A Ashman
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2008,
Abstract: Steven R Flanagan1, Joshua B Cantor2, Teresa A Ashman21New York University School of Medicine, The Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is widespread and leads to death and disability in millions of individuals around the world each year. Overall incidence and prevalence of TBI are likely to increase in absolute terms in the future. Tackling the problem of treating TBI successfully will require improvements in the understanding of normal cerebral anatomy, physiology, and function throughout the lifespan, as well as the pathological and recuperative responses that result from trauma. New treatment approaches and combinations will need to be targeted to the heterogeneous needs of TBI populations. This article explores and evaluates the research evidence in areas that will likely lead to a reduction in TBI-related morbidity and improved outcomes. These include emerging assessment instruments and techniques in areas of structural/chemical and functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology, advances in the realms of cell-based therapies and genetics, promising cognitive rehabilitation techniques including cognitive remediation and the use of electronic technologies including assistive devices and virtual reality, and the emerging field of complementary and alternative medicine.Keywords: traumatic brain injury, assessments, treatments
Meta-Analysis of Pollen Limitation Reveals the Relevance of Pollination Generalization in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil
Marina Wolowski, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Leandro Freitas
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089498
Abstract: Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome – one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively) had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species). Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups) were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the reproductive failure as a result of pollinator loss.
Globular Cluster Systems As Distance Indicators: Metallicity Effects On The Luminosity Function
Keith M. Ashman,Alberto Conti,Stephen E. Zepf
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/117595
Abstract: We investigate the universality of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) and the use of this function as an extragalactic distance indicator. Previous studies have found an offset between GCLF distances and those obtained with other techniques. We show that this offset can be understood in terms of a metallicity effect. Specifically, the globular cluster systems used in distance scale studies have traditionally been those around elliptical galaxies. These systems have higher mean metallicities than the Milky Way globular cluster system. Consequently, the peak of the GCLF in the systems around ellipticals is significantly fainter in $B$ and $V$ than the GCLF peak in the Milky Way. We calculate the shift in the peak of the GCLF relative to the Milky Way globulars in $B$, $V$, $R$, $I$ and $J$ for a range of globular cluster metallicities. Applying these corrections, we find good agreement between GCLF distances and those obtained using the surface brightness fluctuations method. The similarity between metallicity-corrected GCLFs suggests that the underlying mass function of globular cluster systems is remarkably constant from one galaxy to another. Our results allow the GCLF to be employed as an improved distance indicator.
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