Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
The author has suggested that the knee phenomenon in the cosmic ray energy spectrum at 3 PeV can be explained as a split between a radiation-dominated expansion and a matter-dominated expansion of an expanding heat bath. The model proposed in 1985, in fact, predicted that high energy cosmic rays are emitted from AGN, massive black holes, in agreement with recent data from the Pierre Auger Observatory. Similarly, the ankle phenomenon at 3 EeV is shown to be explained by a split between inflational expansion and ordinary material expansion of the expanding heat bath, not unlike that in the expansion of the universe. All the spectral indicies in the respective regions of the energy spectra agree with the theoretical calculation from the respective expansion rates. It is shown that the ankle energy is approximately equal to the threshold energy of cosmic ray production of an electron positron pair on the cmb photon.
The feasibility of using the SOI-MOSFET as a quasi-diode to replace the Schottky-barrier diode in the Schenkel circuit is examined by device simulations primarily and experiments partly. Practical expressions of boost-up efficiency for d. c. condition and a. c. condition are proposed and are examined by simulations. It is shown that the SOI-MOSFET-based quasi-diode is a promising device for the Schenkel circuit because high boost-up efficiency can be gained easily. An a. c. analysis indicates that the fully-depleted condition should hold to suppress the floating-body effect for GHz-level RF applications of a quasi-diode.