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Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among a large national cohort of 87,134 Thai adults
Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Tewarit Somkotra, Sam-ang Seubsman, Adrian C Sleigh, The Thai Cohort Study Team
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-42
Abstract: In 2005, a comprehensive health questionnaire was returned by distance learning cohort members recruited through Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. OHRQoL dimensions included were discomfort speaking, swallowing, chewing, social interaction and pain. We calculated multivariate (adjusted) associations between OHRQoL outcomes, and sociodemographic, health behaviour and dental status.Overall, discomfort chewing (15.8%), social interaction (12.5%), and pain (10.6%) were the most commonly reported problems. Females were worse off for chewing, social interaction and pain. Smokers had worse OHRQoL in all dimensions with Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 1.32 to 1.51. Having less than 20 teeth was strongly associated with difficulty speaking (OR = 6.43), difficulty swallowing (OR = 6.27), and difficulty chewing (OR = 3.26).Self-reported adverse oral health correlates with individual function and quality of life. Outcomes are generally worse among females, the poor, smokers, drinkers and those who have less than 20 teeth. Further longitudinal study of the cohort analysed here will permit assessment of causal determinants of poor oral health and the efficacy of preventive programs in Thailand.Oral health is an important component of both overall health and quality of life. Oral disease creates a major public health burden worldwide and receives inadequate attention in many low and middle income countries [1]. Recently, particular attention is given to increasing the global awareness of the significance and inequity of oral health and the importance of its social determinants [2]. Oral diseases including oral cancers, periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss are linked to emerging chronic non-communicable diseases primarily because of common risk factors such as poor dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and use of tobacco and alcohol [3]. The joint effects of poor oral health and chronic diseases are major impediments to overall population health and quality of life,
Great inclination to smoke among younger adults coming from low-socioeconomic class in Thailand
Sunsanee Mekrungrongwong, Keiko Nakamura, Masashi Kizuki, Ayako Morita, Tewarit Somkotra, Kaoruko Seino, Takehito Takano
International Archives of Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-4-29
Abstract: Data of Thai males aged 21 years and older from Health and Welfare Survey and Socio-Economic Survey, Thailand, 2006 were used in the analyses. Variables in education, household income, age, marital status, and region of residence were used to examine their associations with smoking status.Of the 12,200 respondents, overall prevalence of smoking among males aged 21 years and older was 41.5%. Lower education was strongly associated with smoking (OR 3.15; 95% CI, 2.74-3.62). Youngest age, reside in South region and lowest income were more associated with smoking (OR = 2.66, 1.30, and 1.91, p < 0.05, respectively). Smoking among young adults (age 21-30) (OR = 5.88; 95% CI, 4.3-8.0) showed stronger gradients with educational level than that among older adults (OR = 3.96; 95% CI, 2.8-5.3).The inverse associations between smoking prevalence and socioeconomic status among the Thai adult male population were consistently confirmed. The social gradient in smoking was greater among young adult males than that among older adult males.Smoking tobacco is a major public health problem. Tobacco kills 4 million every year. There has been a progress in smoking control at policy level; however, most countries are still struggling to control. By 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of tobacco victims would rise to 8.4 million and 70% of them would occur in developing countries [1].In addition to male gender, lower socioeconomic status has been revealed to closely link with smoking status in many developed countries and a few developing countries where data is available. Studies have consistently shown that cigarette smoking was more prevalent among lower educational class, lower occupational class, and residences of deprived areas [2]. Physical, social, and psychological environment of low socioeconomic class place them under a more vulnerable situation to cigarette smoking. For example, poor housing quality including crowdedness has shown to increase perceiv
Factors associated with self-reported number of teeth in a large national cohort of Thai adults
Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Tewarit Somkotra, Matthew Kelly, Sam-ang Seubsman, Adrian C Sleigh, the Thai Cohort Study Team
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-31
Abstract: Data derived from a cohort of 87,134 adults enrolled in Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University who completed self-administered questionnaires in 2005. Cohort members are aged between 15 and 87 years and resided throughout Thailand. This is a large study of self-reported number of teeth among Thai adults. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse factors associated with self-reported number of teeth.After adjusting for covariates, being female (OR = 1.28), older age (OR = 10.6), having low income (OR = 1.45), having lower education (OR = 1.33), and being a lifetime urban resident (OR = 1.37) were statistically associated (p < 0.0001) with having less than 20 teeth. In addition, daily soft drink consumptions (OR = 1.41), current regular smoking (OR = 1.39), a history of not being breastfed as a child (OR = 1.34), and mother's lack of education (OR = 1.20) contributed significantly to self-reported number of teeth in fully adjusted analyses.This study addresses the gap in knowledge on factors associated with self-reported number of teeth. The promotion of healthy childhoods and adult lifestyles are important public health interventions to increase tooth retention in middle and older age.Socio-behavioral and environmental factors have been shown to have epidemiologically important roles in oral health [1-5]. Poor living conditions and limited access to oral health services are important risk factors. In addition, unhealthy lifestyles are substantial determinants of oral health, including poor diet, inadequate oral hygiene, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking [6,7].Oral health in later life results from an individual's lifelong accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous determinant experiences at the personal, community and societal levels. These experiences differ according to gender, race, and various socioeconomic factors such as education, income, and occupation [8]. Several birth cohort studies have shown that socioeconomic inequali
Sex Hormones in Autism: Androgens and Estrogens Differentially and Reciprocally Regulate RORA, a Novel Candidate Gene for Autism
Tewarit Sarachana,Minyi Xu,Ray-Chang Wu,Valerie W. Hu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017116
Abstract: Autism, a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by deficits in social behavior and interpersonal communication, and by stereotyped, repetitive behaviors, is inexplicably biased towards males by a ratio of ~4:1, with no clear understanding of whether or how the sex hormones may play a role in autism susceptibility. Here, we show that male and female hormones differentially regulate the expression of a novel autism candidate gene, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORA) in a neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. In addition, we demonstrate that RORA transcriptionally regulates aromatase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen. We further show that aromatase protein is significantly reduced in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects relative to sex- and age-matched controls, and is strongly correlated with RORA protein levels in the brain. These results indicate that RORA has the potential to be under both negative and positive feedback regulation by male and female hormones, respectively, through one of its transcriptional targets, aromatase, and further suggest a mechanism for introducing sex bias in autism.
Investigation of post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks associated with autism spectrum disorders by microRNA expression profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines
Tewarit Sarachana, Rulun Zhou, Guang Chen, Husseini K Manji, Valerie W Hu
Genome Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gm144
Abstract: Global miRNA expression profiling using lymphoblasts derived from these autistic twins and unaffected sibling controls was therefore performed using high-throughput miRNA microarray analysis. Selected differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, and the putative target genes of two of the confirmed miRNA were validated by knockdown and overexpression of the respective miRNAs.Differentially expressed miRNAs were found to target genes highly involved in neurological functions and disorders in addition to genes involved in gastrointestinal diseases, circadian rhythm signaling, as well as steroid hormone metabolism and receptor signaling. Novel network analyses of the putative target genes that were inversely expressed relative to the relevant miRNA in these same samples further revealed an association with ASD and other co-morbid disorders, including muscle and gastrointestinal diseases, as well as with biological functions implicated in ASD, such as memory and synaptic plasticity. Putative gene targets (ID3 and PLK2) of two RT-PCR-confirmed brain-specific miRNAs (hsa-miR-29b and hsa-miR-219-5p) were validated by miRNA overexpression or knockdown assays, respectively. Comparisons of these mRNA and miRNA expression levels between discordant twins and between case-control sib pairs show an inverse relationship, further suggesting that ID3 and PLK2 are in vivo targets of the respective miRNA. Interestingly, the up-regulation of miR-23a and down-regulation of miR-106b in this study reflected miRNA changes previously reported in post-mortem autistic cerebellum by Abu-Elneel et al. in 2008. This finding validates these differentially expressed miRNAs in neurological tissue from a different cohort as well as supports the use of the lymphoblasts as a surrogate to study miRNA expression in ASD.Findings from this study strongly suggest that dysregulation of miRNA expression contributes to the o
Gene Expression Profiling of Lymphoblasts from Autistic and Nonaffected Sib Pairs: Altered Pathways in Neuronal Development and Steroid Biosynthesis
Valerie W. Hu,AnhThu Nguyen,Kyung Soon Kim,Mara E. Steinberg,Tewarit Sarachana,Michele A. Scully,Steven J. Soldin,Truong Luu,Norman H. Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005775
Abstract: Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present “case-control” study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects ~4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.
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