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Effects of Noise Sensitivity, Noise Exposure, and Affluent Status on Aircraft Noise Annoyance  [PDF]
Veng Kheang Phun, Terumitsu Hirata, Tetsuo Yai
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.69086
Abstract: Subjective discomfort of airport community is often assessed as reported noise annoyance in relation to noise exposure level and noise sensitivity. In addition, it has been mentioned that higher affluent people appear to have higher contention to aircraft noise, but there is little literature explicitly supporting that. This paper investigates the relationships among aircraft noise exposure level, noise sensitivity, affluence status, aircraft noise annoyance, and annoyance by other noise sources (e.g., road traffic and neighbor noise). A structural equation model is developed and estimated using data collected from residents, aged between 18 and 77 years old, living near Manila airport in the Philippines (N = 321). Results show that noise sensitivity, noise exposure level, and affluent status have positive effects on aircraft noise annoyance, suggesting that higher affluent people are substantially more annoyed by the aircraft noise than lower affluent people. The results also indicate that the annoyance by other noise sources is significantly influenced by noise sensitivity (p < 0.01), but not by the affluent status. This implies that people with higher affluent status consider more about the noise generated from aircraft than the noise from other sources. Following an airport development plan, the aviation authorities should also consider the affluent status of nearby communities in order to formulate a better aircraft noise management near that airport.
Operational Characteristics of Paratransit Services with Ride-Hailing Apps in Asian Developing Cities: The Phnom Penh Case  [PDF]
Veng Kheang Phun, Reiko Masui, Tetsuo Yai
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2018.84016
Abstract: Rapid adoption of ride-hailing apps (RHAs) has greatly influenced the way people travel—there is no exception for paratransit users. However, it remains unclear whether RHAs would be regarded as threats or opportunities among paratransit operators in Asian developing cities. While RHAs have been viewed as disruptive transportation, several studies explored the threats of RHAs on taxi industry—but only a few examined such threats on other paratransit services (e.g., auto-rickshaws). This study assessed the changes in the operational services among paratransit operators who have adopted RHAs. The changes were examined by statistical comparisons using data collected from questionnaire survey with 182 Bajaj drivers in Phnom Penh, January 23-27, 2018, as a case study. Results showed that majority of the interviewed drivers started new services with RHAs less than a year ago—they were younger (<40 years old), married, and higher education. After adopting RHAs, the drivers could increase their revenue by increasing the number of trips and customers. They could further achieve a higher revenue by operating with multiple RHAs. Most drivers (>88%) satisfied with RHAs and acknowledged improvements on their operational services. The results suggested that RHAs would be opportunities for those paratransit drivers who have adopted them, while they would be threats for those who have not. The collected data serve as useful inputs for future public transport planning in Asian developing cities.
An Analysis on Efficiency and Equity of Fixed-Time Ramp Metering  [PDF]
Ali Sercan Kesten, Murat Ergün, Tetsuo Yai
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.32A006

Various traffic management strategies have been developed to alleviate the congestion on freeways. The equity issue has been considered as one of the major challenges for the implementation of some traffic control strategies, especially ramp metering. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the efficiency and equity performance of a traffic control strategies namely Fixed Time Ramp Metering (FTRM). Instead of focusing on a single equity measure and/or indicator, different approaches to the equity concept are discussed and various equity measures are examined. The equity and efficiency performance of traffic control strategies are compared and evaluated by incorporating them into the simulated corridor. The Bosporus Bridge of Istanbul O-1 Freeway, Turkey is used as a test-bed for the simulation model and the control strategy is employed through microscopic traffic flow simulation software, VISSIM AG. The findings from the simulations show that the equity and efficiency properties of the network vary with the measures and indicators taken into account. The results also suggest that the trade-off between equity and efficiency can be observed for some measures, whereas regarding to other measures the trade-off is not validated.

A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring
Kourmpetis YAI,Aravanopoulos FA
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2010, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0552-003
Abstract: Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetry which refers to random deviation from perfect symmetry of bilateral traits resulting from extrinsic and intrinsic perturbations not buffered during development. Fluctuating asymmetry was used as a proxy of developmental stability. We analyzed our data from a Bayesian perspective showing that developmental stability levels are decreased in the natural population. Our results indicate that an attention may be directed towards the conservation of the natural walnut resources of the area. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of developmental stability may contribute especially in the framework of comparative studies as a population biomonitoring tool.
Remarks on the Erroneous Dispersion Surfaces From a Pair of a Hyperbolic Branch and An Elliptical Arc of the Intersected Two Laue Spheres Based on the Usual Crude Approximation  [PDF]
Tetsuo Nakajima
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.23022
Abstract: In almost all previous works, the hyperbolic dispersion surfaces of the central proper quadrics have been crudely derived from the degree of reduction from the bi-quadratic equation by use of some roughly indefinable approximate relations. Moreover, neglecting the high symmetry of the hyperbola, both the branches have been approximated on the asymmetric surfaces composed of a pair of a branch of the hyperbola and a vertex of the ellipse without the presentation of reasonable evidence. Based upon the same dispersion surfaces equation, a new original gapless dispersion surfaces could be rigorously introduced without crude omission of even a term in the bi-quadratic equation based upon usual analogy with the extended band theory of solid as the close approximation to the truth.
Japanese Social Expenditure under Rapid Population Ageing  [PDF]
Tetsuo Fukawa
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311018
Abstract: Japan is suffering from low fertility for more than two decades, and Japanese social security system needs a structural reform to be more effective and sustainable. In this paper, we discussed structural issues in the Japanese social security system, which will provide the basis for containing social expenditure in Japan. Some Japanese benefits, such as child-rearing support and benefit for low income families as well as long-term care benefit, need to be increased. On the other hand, it is important to incorporate right incentives in the system for healthcare and LTC services, and new forms of solidarity are indispensable to make Japanese social security system sustainable.
Distributive Impact of Low-Income Support Measures in Japan  [PDF]
Tetsuo Fukawa
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.412002
Population decline together with rapid aging has a strong cost push pressure on social security systems in Japan. Effective measures to support low-income families are quite important to mitigate income inequality and to overcome low fertility in Japan. Using the micro-data of the Basic Household Survey 2010, we analyse various measures to support low income families through various simulations concerning child allowance, social security contributions, and income taxes. Based on the simulation results, we discussed distributive impact of such measures and their policy implications.
Elderly Population Projection and Their Health Expenditure Prospects in Japan  [PDF]
Tetsuo Fukawa
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811085
Abstract: By using a dynamic micro-simulation model named INAHSIM-II, we conducted a population-household projection in Japan (INAHSIM 2017) for the period of 2015-2065. Due to rapid aging of the population, the distribution of the elderly (65 years old or older) by dependency level has a profound impact on health expenditure (namely medical expenditure and long-term care expenditure) of the elderly. In this paper, we estimated health expenditure of the elderly in 2025-2065, using the results of the projection of the elderly by dependency level.
Approximating fixed points of total asymptotically nonexpansive mappings
Alber YaI,Chidume CE,Zegeye H
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2006,
Abstract: We introduce a new class of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings and study approximating methods for finding their fixed points. We deal with the Krasnosel'skii-Mann-type iterative process. The strong and weak convergence results for self-mappings in normed spaces are presented. We also consider the asymptotically weakly contractive mappings.
Regularization of nonlinear Ill-posed equations with accretive operators
Alber YaI,Chidume CE,Zegeye H
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2005,
Abstract: We study the regularization methods for solving equations with arbitrary accretive operators. We establish the strong convergence of these methods and their stability with respect to perturbations of operators and constraint sets in Banach spaces. Our research is motivated by the fact that the fixed point problems with nonexpansive mappings are namely reduced to such equations. Other important examples of applications are evolution equations and co-variational inequalities in Banach spaces.
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