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Development of a Retractor Holding Device to Reduce the Manpower in Total Hip Arthroplasty through Direct Anterior Approach  [PDF]
Hirotake Yo, Hirotsugu Ohashi, Ryo Sugama, Tessyu Ikawa
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2016.62004
Abstract: Direct anterior approach (DAA) for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a minimally invasive technique. In this approach, two assistants are necessary. We developed a retractor holding device called “Spider arm” to replace an assistant in the contra-lateral side. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of Spider arm in THA through direct anterior approach. 20 hips were operated without Spider arm and 21 hips were operated with Spider arm. The surgery time and the blood loss were compared. The cup position and leg length discrepancy were measured on radiography. There was no statistical significance between two groups in all parameters. No clinical complications were reported. With Spider arm, DAA-THA could be performed by two surgeons without deterioration of the surgery time and blood loss. The accuracy of cup position and leg length discrepancy was not affected. Spider arm can contribute to reducing the manpower in DAA-THA.
Hypergeometric Solutions for the $q$-Painlevé Equation of type $E^{(1)}_6$ by Padé Method
Yusuke Ikawa
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11005-013-0610-0
Abstract: The $q$-Painlev\'e equation of type $E^{(1)}_6$ is obtained by Pad\'e method. Special solutions in determinant formula to the $q$-Painlev\'e equation is presented. A relation between Pad\'e method and B\"acklund transformation of type $E^{(1)}_6$ is given.
Hart, Dworkin e discricionariedade
Ikawa, Daniela R.;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452004000100006
Abstract: the central issue discussed in this article is whether a judge has a legal duty to decide in an specific manner in cases of legal lacunae, to use h. l. a. hart's expression, or in hard cases, to use ronald dworkin's expression. it argues that, though both hart and dworkin admit a weak form of judicial discretion, they hold opposite views on the existence of that duty. by adopting a notion of legal completeness, which may disagree with a social rule of recognition, and by including non-conventional principles in the concept of law, dworkin offers the justification for that judicial duty. he also offers objective criteria of judicial decision even in hard cases.
Quantum turbulence in coflow of superfluid ${}^4$He
S. Ikawa,M. Tsubota
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We study numerically nonuniform quantum turbulence of coflow in a square channel by the vortex filament model. Coflow means that superfluid velocity $\bm{v}_s$ and normal fluid velocity $\bm{v}_n$ flow in the same direction. Quantum turbulence for thermal counterflow has been long studied theoretically and experimentally. In recent years, experiments of coflow are performed to observe different features from thermal counterflow. By supposing that $\bm{v}_s$ is uniform and $\bm{v}_n$ takes the Hagen-Poiseiulle profile, our simulation finds that quantized vortices are distributed inhomogeneously. Vortices like to accumulate on the surface of a cylinder with $\bm{v}_s \simeq \bm{v}_n$. Consequently, the vortex configuration becomes degenerate from three-dimensional to two-dimensional.
Shallow Reflection Surveys of the East Ongul Island, the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica  [PDF]
Masaki Kanao, Tetsuya Takemoto, Akira Fujiwara, Kiyoshi Ito, Takeshi Ikawa
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.59089

The shallow reflection surveys were carried out in 2007 and 2010 austral summers in East Ongul Island, the Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC), East Antarctica. LHC is identified by geologically as one of the Pan-African terrains of Eastern Dronning Maud Land. The multi-channel reflection surveys targeted to achieve the image of laminated layering of metamorphic rocks near the surface (the depths down to a few hundreds of meters) of the crystalline crust. Two surveys were conducted in total length of the profiles about 500 m along a main traffic load across the East Ongul Island. The multi-channel acquisition systems were utilized with combining the dense geophones along the profiles. Seismic sources were adopted by combining the boom of a power shovel, a weight drop and hammer shots with their intervals in a few tens of meters. The obtained data include clear first P-arrivals in far offset distance. The energy of P-S converted waves was enhanced because of the characteristics of the seismic sources. Pre-stacked images could be expected to the information on metamorphic layering for several lithological structure composed by hornblende gneiss, garnet gneiss and pyroxene gneiss appearing as the surface bedrocks. The conducted shallow reflection surveys would give rise to one step for understanding tectonic formation of LHC, as one of the Pan-African mobile belts in Gondwana super-continent.

A Two-Piece Derivative of a Group I Intron RNA as a Platform for Designing Self-Assembling RNA Templates to Promote Peptide Ligation
Takahiro Tanaka,Hiroyuki Furuta,Yoshiya Ikawa
Journal of Nucleic Acids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/305867
Abstract: Multicomponent RNA-peptide complexes are attractive from the viewpoint of artificial design of functional biomacromolecular systems. We have developed self-folding and self-assembling RNAs that serve as templates to assist chemical ligation between two reactive peptides with RNA-binding capabilities. The design principle of previous templates, however, can be applied only to limited classes of RNA-binding peptides. In this study, we employed a two-piece derivative of a group I intron RNA from the Tetrahymena large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) as a platform for new template RNAs. In this group I intron-based self-assembling platform, modules for the recognition of substrate peptides can be installed independently from modules holding the platform structure. The new self-assembling platform allows us to expand the repertoire of substrate peptides in template RNA design. 1. Introduction In modern cellular systems, RNAs frequently associate with proteins to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes [1–5]. In these RNP complexes, biological functions ascribed to the main component (RNA or protein) are regulated by the accessory component (protein or RNA). During molecular evolution, both main and accessory components often evolved from single- to multi-molecular systems to elaborate and diversify their functions. A typical example can be seen in ribonuclease P (RNaseP), which plays a pivotal role in tRNA processing [6–8]. Most RNaseP enzymes act as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), which have been proposed to have evolved from a catalytic RNA. While prokaryotic RNaseP is composed of a single RNA subunit and single protein subunit [6], eukaryotic RNaseP has 9-10 protein subunits that decorate one RNA subunit [6–8]. A different type of multicomponent system is seen in the evolutionary fragmentation of RNA components in Caulobacter and Euglena, in which the tmRNA [9] and large ribosomal RNA [10] are reconstituted by assembling 2 and 14 fragments, respectively. Multicomponent systems have advantages in functional diversification of biomolecular complexes. For example, it is well known that some protein subunits of eukaryotic RNase P are shared with RNase MRP, which processes non-tRNA substrates [11, 12]. More recently, the core proteins of telomerase RNP complex were reported to play novel roles by associating with nontelomerase RNA [13, 14]. These features of multicomponent RNP complexes are not only advantageous in natural molecular evolution but also attractive from the viewpoint of artificial design of functional biomacromolecular systems. Previously, we reported
PerR-Mediated Oxidative Stress Response in Staphylococcus aureus
Judy Y. Ikawa Wakabayashi,Davis W. Cheng
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen, known to cause a variety of illnesses and infections in the hospital and community settings. It produces a large number of virulence factors used for host invasion, tissue colonization and destruction, leading to severe infections in both healthy and immunodeficient people around the world. In this paper, we studied the potential mechanisms related to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection, analyzed the significance of oxidative stress for survival of S. aureus, and re-identified the molecular structure, regulatory boxes, and regulons of PerR (peroxide responsive repressor) gene, a key modulator responsible for MRSA. Then, we further investigated how PerR functions in response to oxidative stress and how the PerR regulon affects S. aureus virulence. As a conclusion, we postulate that the regulation of PerR and its regulon indirectly influences the expression of virulence factors by prolonging the pathogen’s survival under harsh conditions that may lead to the increased risk of S. aureus transmission, infection, and spread of the disease..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:Infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylocococcus aureus (MRSA) in medical settings are common. In the 1990's, there has been an increase in skin and soft tissue infections due to MRSA strains originating from outside of the medical environment. These infections have been shown to occur mostly in healthy, young individuals. Due to the rise of MRSA, it is necessary to identify new therapeutic solutions to eradicate the pathogen and investigating unique metabolic pathways in the pathogen shows promise in potentially identifying new drug targets. .Please cite this paper as:Ikawa Wakabayashi JY, Cheng DW. PerR-Mediated Oxidative Stress Response in Staphylococcus aureus. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3):443-9. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.2460.
Study on the Structure of Peroxide Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipes with Several Stabilizers  [PDF]
Hideo Hirabayashi, Akinori Iguchi, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Kazuhisa Ikawa, Hidekazu Honma
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.49060

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes used in hot water supply are required for high mechanical strength and high creep resistance at high temperature. Especially PEX-a pipes which are made by peroxide cross-linking have better performance, such as creep resistance and thermal shock resistance than the pipes made by the other cross-linking method. Because the PEX-a pipes indicate the higher cross-link degree as compared with the other PEX pipes. In this study, the PEX-a pipes which were mixed with several stabilizers were tested to evaluate the effects on cross-link degree and the oxygen induction time. And also they are evaluated with the chlorine aqueous solution by the performance of the long-term hydrostatic pressure test and the long-term hydro dynamic pressure test. As a result, it was found that the combination of antioxidants for PEX-a pipes plays an important role to prolong the oxygen induction time without inhibiting the cross-linking. From the results of the 1H pulsed NMR measurement over the melting point of polyethylene, it was found that each peroxide PEX pipe with different antioxidant combinations indicated the different proportion and crosslink density of cross-linked region, in addition, that these pipes had the effective structure of cross-linking for the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure test with the chlorine aqueous solution. Therefore, it was considered to be useful results for studies of the stricture of cross-linking of polyethylene.

Asymmetric Distribution of Gene Expression in the Centromeric Region of Rice Chromosome 5
Hiroshi Ikawa,Takuji Sasaki,Takashi Matsumoto
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2011.00016
Abstract: There is controversy as to whether gene expression is silenced in the functional centromere. The complete genomic sequences of the centromeric regions in higher eukaryotes have not been fully elucidated, because the presence of highly repetitive sequences complicates many aspects of genomic sequencing. We performed resequencing, assembly, and sequence finishing of two P1-derived artificial chromosome clones in the centromeric region of rice (Oryza sativa L.) chromosome 5 (Cen5). The pericentromeric region, where meiotic recombination is silenced, is located at the center of chromosome 5 and is 2.14 Mb long; a total of six restriction-fragment-length polymorphism markers (R448, C1388, S20487S, E3103S, C53260S, and R2059) genetically mapped at 54.6 cM were located in this region. In the pericentromeric region, 28 genes were annotated on the short arm and 45 genes on the long arm. To quantify all transcripts in this region, we performed massive parallel sequencing of mRNA. Transcriptional density (total length of transcribed region/length of the genomic region) and expression level (number of uniquely mapped reads/length of transcribed region) were calculated on the basis of the mapped reads on the rice genome. Transcriptional density and expression level were significantly lower in Cen5 than in the average of the other chromosomal regions. Moreover, transcriptional density in Cen5 was significantly lower on the short arm than on the long arm; the distribution of transcriptional density was asymmetric. The genomic sequence of Cen5 has been integrated into the most updated reference rice genome sequence constructed by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project.
Weakly reflective submanifolds and austere submanifolds
Osamu Ikawa,Takashi Sakai,Hiroyuki Tasaki
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We introduce the notion of a weakly reflective submanifold, which is an austere submanifold with a certain global condition, and study its fundamental properties. Using these, we determine weakly reflective orbits and austere orbits of s-representations.
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