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Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig, Feleke Moges
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-472
Abstract: A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures.Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively.Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05).The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use
Determinants of alcohol drinking and its association with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study  [PDF]
Dawit Teshome, Teferi Gedif
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.36057
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol drinking and risky sexual practices have become serious public health problem among teenagers and young adults globally, including many developing countries. The available reports are sparse, especially there is a lack of recent and representative data for high school students in developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, identify determinants, and examine the association of alcohol drinking with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross sectional study was conducted from November to December 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between students’ background characteristics and alcohol use, and alcohol use and sexual practices. Results: Among 2551 students surveyed, lifetime and current (past month) alcohol drinking was reported by 1166 (45.7%) and 676 (26.5%) students, respectively. Having sexual intercourse at least once in their lifetime was reported by 412 (16.2%) with151 (5.9%) of them being sexually active during a month prior to the survey. Having multiple sexual partners (52.5%), drinking alcohol before sexual intercourse (26.4%), and having sexual intercourse without the use of condom (47.3%) were also common among sexually active students. In adjusted logistic regression model, age (18 and 19 and older), living with 2 parents, getting pocket money, having alcohol drinking friends and attending general secondary school (grade 9-10) were positive predictors of current alcohol drinking. Nergative predictors of current alcohol drinking were being Protestant Christian and living with relatives or siblings. Conclusion: Alcohol drinking before sexual intercourse was a major problem among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Male gender, older age and higher school grade, friends influence, religious affiliation, living with parents and getting pocket money were significant predictors of current alcohol drinking. Educating about substance use and risky sexual behaviors, engaging students in extracurricular activities and restrict access to alcohol to high school students may help in solution of these problems on a local scale.
In Vitro Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Glinus lotoides (L.)—An Important Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Shiferaw Teshome, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69132
Abstract: G. lotoides L. is a threatened plant that is frequently harvested for medicinal purpose. However, its distribution in the world is limited because of short period of seed viability and poor seed germination. The objective of this study was to develop in vitro propagation protocol for G. lotoides through callus induction. For callus induction, different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzyl amino purine) were used. Seeds were sown on growth regulator-free MS medium and shoots from the in vitro germinated seedlings were excised and cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Young leaves from these shoots were used as explant for callus induction and shoot regeneration. Maximum callus induction (100%) was observed on medium containing 2,4-D (0.5, 2.0, 3.5 mg/l) or NAA (2.0, 2.5 mg/l) in combination with 0.5 mg/l BAP. However, 2,4-D was the best in overall callus induction. The highest regeneration (20%) frequency was achieved on the medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Highest number of shoot (2.83 ± 1.22) and shoot length (2.16 ± 0.87 cm) per explant were obtained in the presence of 0.25 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l KIN (Kinetin). In shoot multiplication media, maximum mean (6.43 ± 0.87) of shoot was observed on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. The best shoot length (1.70 ± 0.14 cm) was recorded on control medium. The highest (95%), maximum root number (14.10 ± 1.47) and root length (1.01 ± 0.10 cm) were obtained on a medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All the plants (100%) were survived after acclimatization in greenhouse. The present study can be useful for callus induction and indirect shoot regeneration form G. lotoides.
High Density Solvent Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Technique for Simultaneous and Selective Extraction of Multiclass Pesticide Residues in Water and Sugarcane Juice Samples  [PDF]
Teshome Tolcha, Negussie Megersa
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2018.94018
Abstract: In this study, a miniaturized analytical technique based on high density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (HD-DLLME) was developed for extraction of trace residues of multiclass pesticides including three striazine herbicides, two organophosphate insecticides and two organochlorine fungicides from environmental water and sugarcane juice samples. The analytical method was validated and found to offer good linearity: R2 ≥ 0.991; repeatability varied from 0.73% - 5.28%; reproducibility varied from 1.14% - 8.74% and limit of detection ranged from 0.005 to 0.02 μg/L. Moreover, accuracy of the optimized method was evaluated and the recovery was varied from 80.39% - 114.05%. Analytical applications of this method to environmental waters and sugarcane juice samples indicate the presence of trace residues of ametryn in the lake water and sugarcane juice samples. Atrazine and ametryn were also detected in irrigation water.
Estimation of Open Channel Flow Parameters by Using Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Ebissa Gadissa, Asirat Teshome
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2018.73003
Abstract: The present study involves estimation of open channel flow parameters having different bed materials invoking data of Gradual Varied Flow (GVF). Use of GVF data facilitates estimation of flow parameters. The necessary data base was generated by conducting laboratory. In the present study, the efficacy of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization technique is assessed in estimation of open channel flow parameters from the collected experimental data. Computer codes are developed to obtain optimal flow parameters Optimization Technique. Applicability, adequacy and robustness of the developed code are tested using sets of theoretical data generated by experimental work. A simulation model was developed to compute GVF depths at preselected discrete sections for given downstream head and discharge rate. This model is linked to an optimizer to estimate optimal value of decision variables. The proposed model is employed to a set of laboratory data for three bed materials. Application of proposed model reveals that optimal value of fitting parameter ranges from 1.42 to 1.48 as the material gets finer and optimal decision variable ranges from 0.015 to 0.024. The optimal estimates of Manning’s n of three different bed conditions of experimental channel appear to be higher than the corresponding reported/Strickler’s estimates.
Prevalence and causes of blindness in Merhabete, North Shoa, Ethiopia
Tiliksew Teshome
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1): 71-76]
Media and multi-party elections in Africa: The case of Ethiopia
Wondwosen Teshome
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In any democratic country the media serves as a watch dog of events and decisions and assists citizens to be informed about what is going on in the country. Free media also plays a very important role to conduct democratic elections. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of the media in the African democratization process particularly in the multi-party elections that widely emerged in the continent in the 1990s. The paper investigates the contributions of the media in the emerging African democracies by using the performance of the media in the 2005 multi-party parliamentary election in Ethiopia as a case study. The paper also attempts to assess the Ethiopian press laws of 1992 and 2008, which are the only press laws in the history of the country.
Democracy and Elections in Africa: Critical Analysis
Wondwosen Teshome
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to assess the democratization process in Africa in general and the multi-party elections in particular. The decolonization process in Africa (1960s and 1970s), which was known as the “first liberation” completed by the emergence of many, new independent African countries. In most of the newly liberated countries the political parties that led the anti-colonial struggle established one-party domination after independence. The rapid democratization process (“second liberation”) in Africa began in the first half of the 1990s, particularly with Benin’s multiparty election in 1991. In this period, multi-party elections had taken place in most of African countries. These transitions led to “limited” democracies, characterized by a lack of liberal freedoms, low levels of popular involvement (except at election times), narrow range of civil liberties and the concentration of political power in the hands of small elite groups. Holding an election is a milestone, but it is not the key to Africa’s democratic legitimacy. Many elections in the African region have failed to meet the internationally accepted standards for free and fair elections. Though Africa’s record on free and fair elections is mixed, at present, most of Africans have embraced elections as indispensable mechanism for determining their future course.
Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012)
Wondwosen Teshome
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, Western donors have been following a strategy of democracy promotion to Africa that involves giving assistance to both the state and the non-state actors including governments (as part of good governance program), parliaments, courts, political parties, civil society, electoral management bodies, election observation missions etc. The paper explores both the positive and the negative impacts of such assistance to African emerging democracies by using Ethiopia as a case study. The paper primarily deals with three sub-sectors of democracy promotion program: assistances to political parties, international election observation missions, and civil society. In this study, I argue that human rights and self interest (economic, political or both) shape the foreign aid policy of Western donors including democracy assistance. Moreover, the paper attempts to prove that democratic reversals or backsliding and human rights abuses in the recipient states can trigger aid reduction or termination only when the recipient states are neither economically nor strategically valuable to the Western donors.
Evaluation of soil and water conservation practices in the north-western Ethiopian highlands using multi-criteria analysis
Akalu Teshome
Frontiers in Environmental Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00060
Abstract: Investments by farmers in soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are influenced by the physical effectiveness, financial efficiency and social acceptability of these practices. The objective of this study is to evaluate different SWC practices in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia using various qualitative criteria and weightings based on ecological, economic and social impacts using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). The study reveals that MCA is a useful evaluation tool that takes into account non-monetary and less quantifiable effects of SWC practices. Farmers employ a range of criteria to evaluate the performance of SWC practices. The relative importance of each criterion in their selection of SWC alternatives depends mostly on slope categories. In steeply sloping areas, farmers assigned the highest score for criteria related to ecological impacts; whilst preferring practices with stronger positive economic impacts in moderate and gentle sloping areas. Policy makers and development practitioners are encouraged to pay greater attention to both farmer preferences and slope specific circumstances when designing SWC strategies and programmes.
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