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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 483128 matches for " Terence M. O’Connor "
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Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease—The Effect of Acute Exercise and Pulmonary Rehabilitation  [PDF]
Amani I. El Gammal, Rob O’Farrell, Liam O’Mahony, Fergus Shanahan, Kieran Killian, Terence M. OConnor
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51003
Abstract: Background: Decreased physical capacity and increased systemic inflammatory response are frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The relationship between the inflammatory response and disease severity and the immunological response to exercise were addressed in COPD. Objective: The first objective was to identify systemic biomarkers and their relationship with COPD severity. The second objective was to examine the effect of both acute exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation on these biomarkers. Methods: Forty subjects participated in the study. Thirty-two patients with moderate or severe COPD and 8 healthy non-smokers completed the study. Spirometry was preformed. Physical capacity was determined by a progressive symptom-limited cycle ergo meter (incremental) test. Blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), pro-fibrotic cytokines (TGF-β) and oxidative burst in circulating leukocytes before and after exercise, and before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: IL-6, CRP, WCC and TGF-β were higher in COPD (p < 0.05) than eight healthy controls. WCC, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and TGF-β were negatively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (r = 0.4054, 0.3221, 0.1528, 0.1846 and 0.1187, respectively). Acute exercise increased circulating leucocytes and oxidative stress in both groups (p = 0.000, 0.0049 respectively), while IL-6 was increased in COPD group ((p = 0.0115) and circulating TNF-α in healthy control (p = 0.0369). Pulmonary rehabilitation didn’t modify the levels of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers and acute exercise can further increase this inflammatory response. However pulmonary rehabilitation is unlikely to exacerbate systemic inflammation in COPD.
Normal Perfusion Pressure Breakthrough Following AVM Resection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  [PDF]
T. E. OConnor, K. M. Fargen, J. Mocco
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.34015
Abstract: Objective: To report a patient’s clinical course illustrative of the NPPB mechanism for hyperperfusion-induced injury. Methods: A 65-year-old female presented with a severe headache and was found to have a 6-cm right parietal AVM on imaging. The patient underwent staged, pre-operative embolization and the AVM was surgically resected without intra-operative complication. After the patient emerged from anesthesia she exhibited left hemiplegia and hemispatial neglect. Her systolic blood pressure (SBP) at that time was between 110-120 mmHg. SBP was reduced to 90-100 mmHg and the patient’s symptoms resolved shortly thereafter. The patient’s strict blood pressure goal was relaxed the next morning. However, with her SBP 110-120 mmHg in the ensuing hours, the patient’s left-sided neglect and hemiparesis returned. Her SBP was reduced again to 90-100 mmHg, leading to resolution of her symptoms. Results: This patient’s clinical course supports the NPPB theory of hyperperfusion-induced injury. Despite CT imaging demonstrating no residual AVM following resection, the patient developed neurological deficits in the immediate postoperative period. Aggressive systemic hypotension improved clinical symptoms repeatedly, whereas a brief period of normotension triggered a return of neurological deficits. As a result, there was a direct correlation between fluctuations of neurological status and SBP. This case suggests that the intrinsic autoregulatory capacity was altered in our patient, and that aggressive hypotension was necessary to compensate for diminished autonomic reactivity. Conclusions: This case provides further evidence that NPPB plays a role in hyperperfusion-induced injury following AVM excision and that blood pressure control is vital in managing hyperemic complications following complete resection of cerebral AVMs.
Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape
J O'Connor, M Geiger
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Furthermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region’s ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners’ academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent involvement in their children’s education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language therapist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists’ participation in educator training were identified.
Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke
Thomas M. Heffernan,Terence S. O'Neill
Journal of Addiction , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/160486
Abstract: This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group) and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group) were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities) and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making). The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered. 1. Introduction Second-hand smoke (SHS) refers to a situation where one person inhales another person’s smoke either by exposure to side stream smoke (smoke emitted from the end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar) or mainstream smoke (the smoke that is exhaled by the smoker directly). Previous research has suggested that exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) not only has a detrimental effect upon health, including cardiovascular disease [1, 2], but also is associated with poorer cognitive performance in children, adolescents, and adults (3–6). For example, children exposed to SHS show reduced vocabulary and reasoning abilities [3], as well as more general cognitive and intellectual deficits [4]. In addition, recent work has shown a strong relationship between exposure to SHS and impairments in reading, mathematics, and visuospatial skills in children and adolescents [5] and poorer cognitive function in adults [6, 7]. In the first of these adult studies [6], participants included in the study had no history of smoking or using any tobacco product, and had no history of cardiovascular disease or dementia. Based on their self-reported long-term exposure to SHS tobacco smoke (having lived with a
A non-linear neural network technique for updating of river flow forecasts
A. Y. Shamseldin,K. M. OConnor
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2001,
Abstract: A non-linear Auto-Regressive Exogenous-input model (NARXM) river flow forecasting output-updating procedure is presented. This updating procedure is based on the structure of a multi-layer neural network. The NARXM-neural network updating procedure is tested using the daily discharge forecasts of the soil moisture accounting and routing (SMAR) conceptual model operating on five catchments having different climatic conditions. The performance of the NARXM-neural network updating procedure is compared with that of the linear Auto-Regressive Exogenous-input (ARXM) model updating procedure, the latter being a generalisation of the widely used Auto-Regressive (AR) model forecast error updating procedure. The results of the comparison indicate that the NARXM procedure performs better than the ARXM procedure. Keywords: Auto-Regressive Exogenous-input model, neural network, output-updating procedure, soil moisture accounting and routing (SMAR) model
Ecology and Caudal Skeletal Morphology in Birds: The Convergent Evolution of Pygostyle Shape in Underwater Foraging Taxa
Ryan N. Felice, Patrick M. OConnor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089737
Abstract: Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc.) and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.). Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also the underlying caudal skeleton, reinforcing the importance of the entire caudal locomotor module in avian ecological diversification.
High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of Core-Collapse Supernovae in Multiple Progenitors
Sean M. Couch,Evan P. O'Connor
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/123
Abstract: Three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae are granting new insight into the as-yet uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution one-, two-, and three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch (2013) indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the three-dimensional dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the standing accretion shock instability for both 15-$M_\odot$ and 27-$M_\odot$ progenitors, however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that core-collapse supernovae must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.
Entangled Rings
Kevin M. O'Connor,William K. Wootters
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.052302
Abstract: Consider a ring of N qubits in a translationally invariant quantum state. We ask to what extent each pair of nearest neighbors can be entangled. Under certain assumptions about the form of the state, we find a formula for the maximum possible nearest-neighbor entanglement. We then compare this maximum with the entanglement achieved by the ground state of an antiferromagnetic ring consisting of an even number of spin-1/2 particles. We find that, though the antiferromagnetic ground state does not maximize the nearest-neighbor entanglement relative to all other states, it does so relative to other states having zero z-component of spin.
A prospective randomised pilot study of sedation regimens in a general ICU population: a reality-based medicine study
Simon R Finfer, Anne M O'Connor, Malcolm M Fisher
Critical Care , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/cc344
Abstract: Forty patients were randomised to intermittent diazepam or continuous midazolam and sedation monitored with hourly sedation scores; 31 patients completed the study. Scores indicating undersedation were more common with diazepam (P <0.01); overall adequate sedation midazolam 64.7%, diazepam 35.7% (P =0.21). No patient exhibited inappropriately prolonged sedation. Cost was: midazolam AUS$1.98/h; diazepam AUS$0.06/h.Both regimens produced rapid onset of acceptable sedation but undersedation appeared more common with the cheaper diazepam regimen. At least 140 patients should be studied to provide evidence applicable to the general ICU population. Used alone, a sedation score may be an inappropriate outcome measure for a sedation trial.To provide the highest quality patient care, an intensive care unit (ICU) must constantly review treatment in search of 'best practice' for that unit. The medical literature is the prime source of evidence and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for the evaluation of competing treatments. Nevertheless, RCTs have been criticised as strict inclusion and exclusion criteria may exclude the very patients who clinicians are obliged to treat [1]. The conduct of trials in intensive care is further complicated by the varying case-mix between different units so that the results of even perfectly conducted studies may not be relevant to a unit with a different case-mix. As a result, it becomes necessary to develop protocols and systems for examining practice in one's own unit.ICU sedation regimens provide a good example of the difficulty of extrapolating evidence from the literature to one's own practice. For logistical reasons most sedation studies in intensive care are carried out on patients undergoing short-term sedation following elective surgical procedures. This patient population is not representative of the population of our general ICU, making such results inapplicable to our patients.Two sedative regimens h
Cognitive Speed of Processing Training Can Promote Community Mobility among Older Adults: A Brief Review
Melissa L. O'Connor,Elizabeth M. Hudak,Jerri D. Edwards
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/430802
Abstract: Background. Community mobility is crucial for maintaining independent functioning and quality of life for older adults. Purpose. The present paper describes the relationship of cognition, particularly speed of processing as measured by the Useful Field of View Test, to mobility as indicated by driving behaviors, life space, and falls among healthy older adults. Research examining the impact of cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT) on older adults' community mobility (i.e., driving behaviors) is also summarized. Key Issues. Even slight cognitive declines can place older adults at risk for mobility limitations. However, cognitive interventions like SOPT can mitigate declines in driving mobility. Implications. The potential of SOPT to sustain community mobility among older adults is discussed. 1. Introduction Mobility may be defined as the ability to move through one’s environment in order to complete a task or achieve a goal [1, 2]. Continued mobility is crucial for maintaining independent functioning and quality of life [3, 4]. Yet, mobility limitations increase with age [3]. Decreased mobility among older adults, defined in this paper as individuals 55 years of age and older, may result from numerous factors such as failing health [3] and vision [5]. Age-related declines in aspects of cognition, including memory, reasoning, executive functioning, and speed of processing [6], may also predict mobility among community-dwelling older adults without dementia [7]. The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV, a registered trademark of Visual Awareness, Inc.) is a cognitive measure of visual processing speed for attentional tasks [8, 9] that has consistently emerged as a predictor of mobility. This paper describes the relationship of cognitive speed of processing, as measured by UFOV, to community mobility as indicated by driving, life space, and the occurrence of falls. The relationship of UFOV to mobility is of particular interest in that UFOV difficulties can be rehabilitated with training [10–12]. Research has indicated that speed of processing training (SOPT), a cognitive intervention, not only improves speed of processing but also transfers to prolonged safe driving mobility among older adults [13, 14]. Research examining the impact of this intervention on older adults’ driving mobility is summarized. The potential of such cognitive interventions to sustain mobility and quality of life among older adults is discussed. 2. Driving, Life Space, and Falls Driving is an important aspect of community mobility, particularly for older adults in the United States
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