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Does Consciousness Exist Independently of Present Time and Present Time Independently of Consciousness?  [PDF]
Birgitta Dresp-Langley, Jean Durup
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21007
Abstract: While some are currently debating whether time may or may not be an illusion, others keep devoting their time to the science of consciousness. Time as such may be seen as a physical or a subjective variable, and the limitations in our capacity of perceiving and analyzing temporal order and change in physical events definitely constrain our understanding of consciousness which, in return, constrains our conceptual understanding of time. Temporal codes generated in the brain have been considered as the key to insight into neural function and, ultimately, as potential neural substrates of consciousness itself. On the basis of current evidence and opinion from neuroscience and philosophy, we consider the interrelation between consciousness and time in the light of Hegel and Heidegger’s concepts of Sein (Being) and Zeit (Time). We suggest that consciousness can be defined in terms of a succession of psychological moments where we realize that we exist in, and are part of, a present moment in time. This definition places all other perceptual or sensorial processes which may characterize phenomenal experience at a different level of analysis and centers the debate around consciousness on the fundamental identity link between awareness of the Ich (I) and awareness of what Heidegger termed Ursprüngliche Zeit (original time). We argue that human consciousness has evolved from the ability to be aware of, to remember, and to predict temporal order and change in nature, and that the limits of this capacity are determined by limits in the functional plasticity of resonant brain mechanisms. Although the conscious state of the Self is the ultimate expression of this evolution, it is devoid of any adaptive function as such.
O efeito de ordem temporal no pensamento contrafactual das crian?as
Rasga,Célia; Quelhas,Ana Cristina;
Análise Psicológica , 2009,
Abstract: when adults think in a counterfactual way, about what might have been different in a random sequence of events, such as in the case of a cointossing game (heads or tails), they are influenced by the order in which these events take place, showing an effect of temporal order and thus attribute emotions, such as guilt (in the case of loss), to the last player. in this context we will present two experiments. in a first experiment we studied if the temporal order effect occurred in children, as well as the emotional judgments of sadness and guilt caused by this effect. and, moreover, we also wanted to know if this can be eliminated, as occurs in adults when the game is interrupted and then restarts from the beginning. we found that the effect of temporal order happens from 6 years old, but its reduction/elimination occurs only to 10 years of age, as expected, given the increased representational capacity of these children comparing to the younger. at the level of emotional trials, they differed over the ages. in a second experiment, we studied if the temporal order effect would take place in the children when of a positive result, as well as the emotional judgements of happiness and pride. we found that from early the children also show an effect of temporal order for beneficial results. at the level of the emotional judgments, this seems congruent with the temporal order effect. these results will be discussed in terms of his implications for the understanding of the development of the mental representations.
Generalization of temporal order detection skill learning: two experimental studies of children with dyslexia
Murphy, C.F.B.;Schochat, E.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2010007500016
Abstract: the objective of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of learning generalization of a specific skill of auditory temporal processing (temporal order detection) in children with dyslexia. the frequency order discrimination task was applied to children with dyslexia and its effect after training was analyzed in the same trained task and in a different task (duration order discrimination) involving the temporal order discrimination too. during study 1, one group of subjects with dyslexia (n = 12; mean age = 10.9 ± 1.4 years) was trained and compared to a group of untrained dyslexic children (n = 28; mean age = 10.4 ± 2.1 years). in study 2, the performance of a trained dyslexic group (n = 18; mean age = 10.1 ± 2.1 years) was compared at three different times: 2 months before training, at the beginning of training, and at the end of training. training was carried out for 2 months using a computer program responsible for training frequency ordering skill. in study 1, the trained group showed significant improvement after training only for frequency ordering task compared to the untrained group (p < 0.001). in study 2, the children showed improvement in the last interval in both frequency ordering (p < 0.001) and duration ordering (p = 0.01) tasks. these results showed differences regarding the presence of learning generalization of temporal order detection, since there was generalization of learning in only one of the studies. the presence of methodological differences between the studies, as well as the relationship between trained task and evaluated tasks, are discussed.
Modulation of the perception of temporal order by attentional and pre-attentional factors
Haddad Jr., H.;Carreiro, L.R.R.;Baldo, M.V.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002000800016
Abstract: when two stimuli are presented simultaneously to an observer, the perceived temporal order does not always correspond to the actual one. in three experiments we examined how the location and spatial predictability of visual stimuli modulate the perception of temporal order. thirty-two participants had to report the temporal order of appearance of two visual stimuli. in experiment 1, both stimuli were presented at the same eccentricity and no perceptual asynchrony between them was found. in experiment 2, one stimulus was presented close to the fixation point and the other, peripheral, stimulus was presented in separate blocks in two eccentricities (4.8o and 9.6o). we found that the peripheral stimulus was perceived to be delayed in relation to the central one, with no significant difference between the delays obtained in the two eccentricities. in experiment 3, using three eccentricities (2.5o, 7.3o and 12.1o) for the presentation of the peripheral stimulus, we compared a condition in which its location was highly predictable with two other conditions in which its location was progressively less predictable. here, the perception of the peripheral stimulus was also delayed in relation to the central one, with this delay depending on both the eccentricity and predictability of the stimulus. we argue that attentional deployment, manipulated by the spatial predictability of the stimulus, seems to play an important role in the temporal order perception of visual stimuli. yet, under whichever condition of spatial predictability, basic sensory and attentional processes are unavoidably entangled and both factors must concur to the perception of temporal order.
Modulation of the perception of temporal order by attentional and pre-attentional factors
Haddad Jr. H.,Carreiro L.R.R.,Baldo M.V.C.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002,
Abstract: When two stimuli are presented simultaneously to an observer, the perceived temporal order does not always correspond to the actual one. In three experiments we examined how the location and spatial predictability of visual stimuli modulate the perception of temporal order. Thirty-two participants had to report the temporal order of appearance of two visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, both stimuli were presented at the same eccentricity and no perceptual asynchrony between them was found. In Experiment 2, one stimulus was presented close to the fixation point and the other, peripheral, stimulus was presented in separate blocks in two eccentricities (4.8o and 9.6o). We found that the peripheral stimulus was perceived to be delayed in relation to the central one, with no significant difference between the delays obtained in the two eccentricities. In Experiment 3, using three eccentricities (2.5o, 7.3o and 12.1o) for the presentation of the peripheral stimulus, we compared a condition in which its location was highly predictable with two other conditions in which its location was progressively less predictable. Here, the perception of the peripheral stimulus was also delayed in relation to the central one, with this delay depending on both the eccentricity and predictability of the stimulus. We argue that attentional deployment, manipulated by the spatial predictability of the stimulus, seems to play an important role in the temporal order perception of visual stimuli. Yet, under whichever condition of spatial predictability, basic sensory and attentional processes are unavoidably entangled and both factors must concur to the perception of temporal order.
Temporal-order judgment of visual and auditory stimuli: modulations in situations with and without stimulus discrimination
Elisabeth Hendrich,Tilo Strobach,Martin Buss,Hermann J. Müller,Torsten Schubert
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00063
Abstract: Temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks are an important paradigm to investigate processing times of information in different modalities. There are a lot of studies on how temporal order decisions can be influenced by stimuli characteristics. However, so far it has not been investigated whether the addition of a choice reaction time (RT) task has an influence on TOJ. Moreover, it is not known when during processing the decision about the temporal order of two stimuli is made. We investigated the first of these two questions by comparing a regular TOJ task with a dual task (DT). In both tasks, we manipulated different processing stages to investigate whether the manipulations have an influence on TOJ and to determine thereby the time of processing at which the decision about temporal order is made. The results show that the addition of a choice RT task does have an influence on the TOJ, but the influence seems to be linked to the kind of manipulation of the processing stages that is used. The results of the manipulations indicate that the temporal order decision in the DT paradigm is made after perceptual processing of the stimuli.
Novel Methods in the Study of the Breast Cancer Genome: Towards a Better Understanding of the Disease of Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Jian Li, Xue Lin, Nils Brünner, Huanming Yang, Lars Bolund
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.325101
Abstract: Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and bioinformatic approacheshave provided us with an unprecedented instrument allowing for an unbiased and exhaustive characterization of the cancer genome in genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic dimensions. This review introduces recent excitingfindings and new methodologies in genomic breast cancer research. With this development, cancer genome research will illuminate new delicate interactionsbetween molecular networks and thereby unravelthe underlying biological mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. It also holds promise for providing a molecular clock for the estimation of the temporal processes of tumorigenesis. These methods in combination with single cell sequencing will make it possible to construct a family tree elucidating the evolutionary lineage relationships between cell populations at single-cell resolution. The anticipatedrapid progress in genomic breast cancer research should lead to anenhanced understanding of breast cancer biology andguide us towardsnovel ways to ultimatelyprevent and cure breast cancer.
Distribution of visual attention within a cued area: evidence based on temporal order judgments
Cavallet, Mikael;Galera, Cesar Alexis;Grünau, Michael W. von;Panagopoulos, Afroditi;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722011000100023
Abstract: three experiments were performed to investigate the distribution of attention across the visual field and the possibility of attentional resources to be more concentrated inside an abrupt onset frame (cue). the participants performed a temporal order judgment task of two letters presented in sequence; one letter presented inside and the other outside the frame. the results showed that the information presented inside the frame had its perceptual latency shortened in relation to the information presented outside the frame in experimental conditions where the frame orientation, the distance between the two letters and the cue onset time were manipulated. the advantage of the information presented inside the frame was attributed to the displacement of attention to the area delimited by the frame. the results contribute to the understanding of visual perception, showing that attentional resources may be redistributed inside the borders of a geometric figure.
Pitfalls in transaction time
Helena Palovska
Systémová Integrace , 2011,
Abstract: Impreciseness of the notion of “transaction time” is clarified. Uncertainty in application of “transaction time” as “the starting time of the existence of a database record” or “when we got to know” is pointed out. Questions of computer clock synchronization and currently available methods for computer clock synchronization are resumed. Examples of faults in temporal data interpreted as transaction time data in applications are introduced. Safe approaches to the design of systems with temporal data are proposed.
Stimulus-onset-asynchrony as the main cue in temporal order judgment
L. Fostick,E. Ben-Artzi,H. Babkoff
Audiology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/audiores.2011.e5
Abstract: Elderly individuals often complain of difficulties in understanding speech, especially when heard against a background noise or when there are multiple speakers. One of the hypothesized reasons for these complaints is the reported age-related decline in auditory temporal processing (Schneider & Pichora-Fuller, 2001; Schneider, Daneman, & Pichora- Fuller, 2002). The rationale underlying this hypothesis is that the appropriate use of speech cues relies on several types of auditory temporal resolution, which research has shown is age-related (Gordon-Salant, 2005; Pichora-Fuller & Souza, 2003; Schneider & Pichora-Fuller, 2001; Schneider et al., 2002). A large number of studies have compared young and elderly subjects on a variety of auditory temporal resolution tasks and reported poorer resolution by the elderly as compared to the younger individuals. Elderly adults perform poorer than younger adults in gap detection tasks and need longer silent intervals to identify the presence of a gap when the marker signal is 250 msec or shorter...
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