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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16 matches for " Telahun Teka "
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Knowledge and attitude towards mother to child transmission of HIV and it's prevention among post natal mothers in Tikur Anbessa and Zewditu Memorial Hospitals, Addis Ababa
Solomie Jebessa, Telahun Teka
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is currently a major public health problem in Ethiopia and mother to child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infections. The transmission of HIV from infected mothers to babies could occur during antenatal period, as well as during delivery and breastfeeding (postnatal period). Since breastfeeding is essential for child survival, it is also necessary to assess mothers' knowledge and attitude towards HIV transmission and its prevention during breastfeeding. Objectives: This study attempts to assess mothers' knowledge of MTCT of HIV including breastfeeding, in two government hospitals in Addis Ababa. It also describes mothers' attitudes towards voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services. Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude towards MTCT and its' preventive methods on postnatal mothers who delivered at Tikur Anbessa and Zewditu Memorial Hospitals, Addis Ababa, from January to March 2004. A structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: A total of 384 mothers were interviewed 78.4% of whom were from Addis Ababa. 87.0% were aged between 16-30 years. Of these mothers 54.9% were primipara, 89.9% were married, and 84.6% were Christians. Amhara (44.5%), Oromo (26.3%), Gurage (17.2%), and Tigre (7.0%) were the major ethnic groups in the study population. All the 384 respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS of which, 82.3 % mentioned the major routes of transmission and 89.8% knew that that HIV could be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby. Most of the respondents (76.8%) knew that MTCT of HIV is preventable, 64.6% knew the protective effect of prophylactic anti-retroviral drugs, 37.1% knew that abstinence from breastfeeding can prevent MTCT, 10.4% knew elective caesarean section (C/S) as a preventive method and 6.9% stated that protection of the mother from HIV is the same as protecting her baby. Those mothers who were from Addis Ababa, and whose educational level was secondary and above were found to be more knowledgeable about MTCT and PMTCT. Three hundred seventeen (82.6%) of the mothers knew what VCT meant and 76.8% of them have positive attitudes to wards VCT. 69.3% of the mother indicated that mothers should be tested before breastfeeding and 67.4% agreed to have VCT before breastfeeding their new babies. 60.2% planned to have VCT before their next pregnancy. Conclusion: This study showed that most mothers in this study knew that HIV could be transmitted from mother to child and that it can be prevented. A majority are of the opinion that VCT can be a preventive strategy and most of them have the intention to have counseling and testing before the next pregnancy. Hence well-organized VCT centers and PMTCT programs should be established to halt the epidemic from affecting the next generation. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 211-218
Land Suitability Characterization for Crop and Fruit Production in Midlands of Tigray, Ethiopia
K Teka, M Haftu
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this evaluation was to find out which parcels of land may best support the different crops and fruits commonly grown by the local farmer and recommend these results to the local stakeholder for an increased yield. The focus was on food crops and fruits those can be used to alleviate poverty and improve nutrition in farm households, with the highest priority assigned to crops and fruits already well established in the area. Remote sensing (ILWIS3.3) and GIS (ArcView3.2) softwares were used to establish the land unit maps of the area. The land suitability assessment for annual crops and fruit trees was carried out with the use of the parametric methodology. Results showed that the cultivated land under question is marginally suitable (S3) for Zea mays L.; 91.5% of the land is S3 for Cicer arietinium, Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica; 68.9% is S3 for Persea americana and Hordeum vulgare L.; 77.4% is S3 for Carica papaya L. and Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. The use of land according to its suitability class or mitigating the limiting factors is, therefore, paramount for increased production.
Quality of Liver and Kidney Function Tests among Public Medical Laboratories in Western Region of Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia
A Teka, G Kibatu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Medical laboratories play essential roles in measurements of substances in body fluids for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and for greater understanding of the disease process. Thus, data generated from have to be reliable for which strict quality control, management and assurance are maintained. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of clinical chemistry laboratories in western region of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia in testing liver and kidney functions. Methods: Eight laboratories in hospitals and a Regional Health Research Laboratory Center participated in this study from February to March, 2011. Each participant was requested to measure six specimens for six chemistry tests from two control samples. Three hundred twenty four test results to be reported from all participant laboratories, if all measurements can be made, were designed to be collected and statistically evaluated. Results: None of the study subject laboratories could deliver all the six tests for estimation of both liver and renal functions simultaneously during the study period. Only 213 values from the expected 324 values were reported and about 65 % of the 213 values reported fell outside of the allowable limits of errors for the chemistry tests of the control specimen used. Conclusion: This study finding showed that there were lack of accuracy and precision in chemistry measurements. A regular survey on medical laboratories should be conducted questioning the accuracy and precision of their analyses in order to sustain improvements in the quality of services provided by participating laboratories for the benefit of patients. Laboratory Quality Management Systems appreciate the need for regular quality control and quality assessment schemes in medical laboratories.
The Caffarelli Alternative in Measure for the Nondivergence Form Elliptic Obstacle Problem with Principal Coefficients in VMO
Ivan Blank,Kubrom Teka
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We study the obstacle problem with an elliptic operator in nondivergence form with principal coefficients in VMO. We develop all of the basic theory of existence, uniqueness, optimal regularity, and nondegeneracy of the solutions. These results, in turn, allow us to begin the study of the regularity of the free boundary, and we show existence of blowup limits, a basic measure stability result, and a measure-theoretic version of the Caffarelli alternative proven in Caffarelli's 1977 paper "The regularity of free boundaries in higher dimensions."
Applying the regularized derivatives approach in Euler deconvolution and modeling geophysical data to estimate the deep active structures for the northern Red Sea Rift region, Egypt
Salah Saleh, Roman Pa teka
Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10126-012-0003-x
Abstract: The Red Sea is considered to be a typical example of a newly formed ocean. Moreover the northern Red Sea region and Gulf of Suez are generally important due to their hydrocarbon resources. Estimation of higher derivatives of potential fields represents a significant role in geophysical interpretation (qualitative and/or quantitative), as has been demonstrated in many approaches. One of the most popular methods, employing higher derivatives is the well known Euler deconvolution method. In this method it is very important to stabilize the derivatives evaluation, because they are very sensitive to noise and errors in the interpreted field. One way to stabilize higher derivative evaluation is the utilization of the Tikhonov regularization. We show the influence of regularized derivatives on the properties of the classical 3D Euler deconvolution algorithm and apply it to geophysical potential field data from the Red Sea Rift and its surroundings. The solution obtained with regularized derivatives gives better focused depth-estimates, which are closer to the real position of sources; the results presented here can be used to constrain depth to active crustal structures (boundaries and volcanisms) for northern Red Sea rift. Estimated Euler solution map from Bouguer data utilizing the Tikhonov regularization reveals both the continental-oceanic crust boundary and several shallow listric normal faults spreading on the Red Sea margins having NW-SE direction, suggesting NE-SW extension in these regions. Also, generalized depth model for the structure of the Gulf of Aqaba (three pull-apart basins) was well recognized from this map. However, Euler solutions with band pass filter of magnetic data gives best depth-estimates connected with the volcanic intrusive bodies (intense magmatic activity) prevalent on and around the axial trough transform faults resulted from initiation of Red Sea Rift. This depth estimation was derived resulting different structural indexes (SI). The Majority of seismic epicenters along Red Sea rift is clustered on axial trough and on or near some active initiated transform faults of Red Sea basin which attributed to stresses from magmatic activity and rifting process.
On the kinetics of first-order hase transition in adsorbed layers
Teka Gebre-Medhin, Jurn Schmelzer
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1987,
Abstract: Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop.l(2), 71,-82 (1987).
On the kinetics of first-order hase transition in adsorbed layers
Teka Gebre-Medhin,Jurn Schmelzer
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1987,
Abstract: Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop.l(2), 71,-82 (1987).
Neuronal Spike Timing Adaptation Described with a Fractional Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Model
Wondimu Teka,Toma M. Marinov,Fidel Santamaria
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003526
Abstract: The voltage trace of neuronal activities can follow multiple timescale dynamics that arise from correlated membrane conductances. Such processes can result in power-law behavior in which the membrane voltage cannot be characterized with a single time constant. The emergent effect of these membrane correlations is a non-Markovian process that can be modeled with a fractional derivative. A fractional derivative is a non-local process in which the value of the variable is determined by integrating a temporal weighted voltage trace, also called the memory trace. Here we developed and analyzed a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model in which the exponent of the fractional derivative can vary from 0 to 1, with 1 representing the normal derivative. As the exponent of the fractional derivative decreases, the weights of the voltage trace increase. Thus, the value of the voltage is increasingly correlated with the trajectory of the voltage in the past. By varying only the fractional exponent, our model can reproduce upward and downward spike adaptations found experimentally in neocortical pyramidal cells and tectal neurons in vitro. The model also produces spikes with longer first-spike latency and high inter-spike variability with power-law distribution. We further analyze spike adaptation and the responses to noisy and oscillatory input. The fractional model generates reliable spike patterns in response to noisy input. Overall, the spiking activity of the fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model deviates from the spiking activity of the Markovian model and reflects the temporal accumulated intrinsic membrane dynamics that affect the response of the neuron to external stimulation.
Is the difference in neonatal blood glucose concentration of caesarian and vaginally delivered term infants requiring separated reference intervals?
Mulugeta Melkie, Mahilet Yigeremu, Paulos Nigussie, Tilahun Teka, Samuel Kinde
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-519
Abstract: A total of 60 newborns were included from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Cord blood samples were collected and analyzed for glucose by Glucose-oxidase (GOD-PAP) method in TASH laboratory using HumaStar 300 from November 2010 to April 2011. All pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical aspects were thoroughly controlled. A robust method was used for the determination of reference intervals using MedCalc? software Version 11.6.1.VD newborns accounted for 71.7% (n?=?43) while the CS newborns accounted for 28.3% (n?=?17). No statistically significant difference was noted in the studied demographic variables among VD and CS newborns except for blood glucose level. The RIs were then determined to be 2.46-6.85?mmol/l and 2.46-5.04?mmol/l for VD and CS newborns respectively. The combined RI was 2.24-6.48?mmol/l.Combined RI better be used for the interpretation of cord blood glucose values in VD and CS newborns. Cord blood glucose concentrations of 2.24?mmol/l can be used as statistical estimates of cut off points for neonatal hypoglycemia in newborns irrespective of their mode of deliveries.Labor is a stress both to the mother and the fetus. During labor the presence of pain, fatigue, physiologic alterations and maternal anxiety stresses the mother subsequently increasing maternal catecholamine [1,2]. Fetal catecholamine production also increases up to ten fold compared to pre-labor levels as a result of the stress [1].Both animal and human studies have showed that catecholamine release has profound difference in different modes of deliveries. Particularly, the production of catecholamines is higher during normal vaginal delivery (VD) than during cesarean section (CS) which can be explained by the increased stress in VD [3,4]. This labor induced fetal catecholamine surge is presumed to provide the neonate with an important mechanism of adaptation to the extra-uterine environment [5]. Besides, the catecholamines made newborns delivered through VD to acquire
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in paediatric diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal patients in Addis Ababa hospitals, with special emphasis on opportunistic parasitic infections and with insight into the demographic and socio-economic factors
Haileeyesus Adamu, Tekola Endeshaw, Tilahun Teka, Achamyelesh Kifle, Beyene Petros
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhoea specially in infants and in immunocompromised people world wide. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and determine the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites in paediatric patients with and without diarrhoea in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 children under five years of age who had diarrhoea and on 74 children who had no diarrhoea in selected Hospitals in Addis Ababa. Single stool specimens were collected and screened for intestinal parasitic infections by using direct and concentrated methods. The Modified Ziehl-Neelsen Staining and Modified Water-Ether Sendimentaion methods were used for detecting Coccidial parasites. Results: Of the 222 paediatric diarrhoeal patients, 61(27.5%) were found to be infected with a variety of intestinal parasites and out of 74 children without diarrhoea 11(14.9%) were found to be infected. Among the emerging opportunistic parasites detected in diarrhoeal children were Cryptosporidium parvum (8.1%), Isospora belli (2.3%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/ Encephalitozoon intestinalis (0.5%). Other common intestinal parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.9%), Giardia lamblia (6.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/ E. dispar (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (5.9%) and Hymnolepis nana (0.5%). Opportunistic parasites were found to be significantly associated with diarrhoeal and non-breastfed children (p<0.001). C. parvum and I. belli respectively were isolated from 83.3% and 80% of diarrhoeal children aged less than 12 months. C. paravum and I. belli infections were also higher in male children, with a prevalence of 72.2% for C. paravum and 80% for I. belli. Conclusion: This study re-affirms and confirms the previously held view that opportunistic parasites can cause diarrhoea in paediatric patients and that it is more prevalent in male, non-breastfed children. The cause of diarrhoea in paediatrics in the absence of identifiable parasitic infections suggests that other infectious agents might be responsible for the diarrhoea. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 39-46
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