Abstract:
We present novel tools suitable for assessments of DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity in nucleotide sequences at the genome scale. Utility of the present software is demonstrated on a comparison of sequence periodicities in the genomes of Haemophilus influenzae, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana. The software can be accessed through a web interface and the programs are also available for download.The present software is suitable for comparing DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity among different genomes as well as for analysis of intrachromosomal heterogeneity of the sequence periodicity. It provides a quick and convenient way to detect anomalous regions of chromosomes that could have unusual structural and functional properties and/or distinct evolutionary history.Most naturally occurring DNA sequences feature two strong periodic patterns. The first relates to a 3 bp period resulting from amino acid and codon usage biases in protein coding genes. The second arises from periodic spacing of A-tracts (short runs of A or T) phased with the DNA helical period of ~10.5 bp. The periodically spaced A-tracts are a primary indicator of intrinsically bent DNA and the main component of nucleosome positioning signals in eukaryotes [1-3]. Similar periodic patterns are present in prokaryotes, where they could contribute to DNA packaging in the nucleoid [4,5], promote the appropriate mode of supercoiling [6,7], and/or facilitate the initiation and termination of transcription [8,9]. There are significant differences in the character and intensity of these periodic patterns among different genomes as well as among different segments of the same genome [4,6,7,10]. In some species, the intragenomic heterogeneity of the sequence periodicity has been linked to local variance in gene expression and chromatin structure [4,11,12].Despite the biological significance of DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity, there are virtual

Logistic regression is usually used to model
probabilities of categorical responses as functions of covariates. However, the
link connecting the probabilities to the covariates is non-linear. We show in
this paper that when the cross-classification of all the covariates and the
dependent variable have no empty cells, then the probabilities of responses can be
expressed as linear functions of the covariates. We demonstrate this for
both the dichotmous and polytomous dependent variables.

Abstract:
There has been a steady decline in the number of applications to nephrology training programs. One solution is to decrease the number of available fellowship positions. Proponents believe that training programs have grown too big but the method for reduction has not been established. This investigation analyzes two models that decrease the number of available training positions and compares them head-to-head to identify the least burdensome method by which this reduction should occur. In the survival of the fittest model (SotFM) fellowship positions are eliminated if they were unfilled in the National Residency Match Program’s (NRMP) 2013 Specialty Match. In the equal proportions model (EPM) a formula is used to calculate a priority score using ESRD prevalence data from the 2013 USRDS Report and the geometric mean between a given jurisdiction’s current apportionment (n) and its next position (n+1). The least burdensome model is that which results in the 1) least number of jurisdictions losing fellow positions and 2) lowest percent reduction for any single jurisdiction. There were 416 nephrology positions offered and 47 unfilled in 2013. In the SotFM, 23 jurisdictions would sacrifice these 47 positions. In the EPM, 369 positions were apportioned (=416-47); only 9 jurisdictions would experience a reduction. The largest single-jurisdiction reduction in fellow positions was 67% (SotFM) and 50% (EPM). The EPM results in a less burdensome reduction of fellow positions nationwide. The EPM is a time-tested model that injects fairness into the painful process of reducing the total number of fellow positions across America.

Abstract:
There has been a steady decline in the number of applications to nephrology training programs. One solution is to decrease the number of available fellowship positions. Proponents believe that training programs have grown too big but the method for reduction has not been established. This investigation analyzes two models that decrease the number of available training positions and compares them head-to-head to identify the least burdensome method by which this reduction should occur. In the survival of the fittest model (SotFM) fellowship positions are eliminated if they were unfilled in the National Residency Match Program’s (NRMP) 2013 Specialty Match. In the equal proportions model (EPM) a formula is used to calculate a priority score using ESRD prevalence data from the 2013 USRDS Report and the geometric mean between a given jurisdiction’s current apportionment (n) and its next position (n + 1). The least burdensome model is that which results in the (1) least number of jurisdictions losing fellow positions and (2) lowest percent reduction for any single jurisdiction. There were 416 nephrology positions offered and 47 unfilled in 2013. In the SotFM, 23 jurisdictions would sacrifice these 47 positions. In the EPM, 369 positions were apportioned (=416–47); only 9 jurisdictions would experience a reduction. The largest single-jurisdiction reduction in fellow positions was 67% (SotFM) and 50% (EPM). The EPM results in a less burdensome reduction of fellow positions nationwide. The EPM is a time-tested model that injects fairness into the painful process of reducing the total number of fellow positions across America.

Abstract:
Let $M$ be a compact 3-manifold with a triangulation $\tau$. We give an inequality relating the Euler characteristic of a surface $F$ normally embedded in $M$ with the number of normal quadrilaterals in $F$. This gives a relation between a topological invariant of the surface and a quantity derived from its combinatorial description. Secondly, we obtain an inequality relating the number of normal triangles and normal quadrilaterals of $F$, that depends on the maximum number of tetrahedrons that share a vertex in $\tau$.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe a procedure for refining the given triangulation of a 3-manifold that scales the PL-metric according to a given weight function while creating no new normal surfaces. It is known that an incompressible surface $F$ in a triangulated 3-manifold $M$ is isotopic to a normal surface that is of minimal PL-area in the isotopy class of $F$. Using the above scaling refinement we prove the converse. If $F$ is a surface in a closed 3-manifold $M$ such that for any triangulation $\tau$ of $M$, $F$ is isotopic to a $\tau$-normal surface $F(\tau)$ that is of minimal PL-area in its isotopy class, then we show that $F$ is incompressible.

Abstract:
In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice.Psychiatry is uniquely problematic because debates over what mental disorders are have presented substantial challenges to medical praxis and ethics. In many ways, the question of what constitutes a mental disorder is related to uncertainties about the nature of mental experience, and the underlying relationship(s) of body, brain and mind. Traditionally, medicine has been successful in establishing etiology of diseases and disorders, and developing focal therapies based upon such mechanistic conceptualizations. The acts of medicine (i.e.- diagnosis, therapeutics, and prognosis) depend upon the ability to distinguish between what is "normal" and what is pathologic, and the evolution and practice of psychiatry has attempted to adopt and utilize the medical model in this regard.Yet, as neuroscience probes ever deeper into the workings of the brain, it becomes evident that the "mind" remains somewhat enigmatic, and thus, any attempt to link mental events to biology must confront what Chalmers has referred to as the "hard problem" of consciousness [1]. But given the continued ambiguity of the brain-mind relation

Abstract:
Synthesis of various pyrimidines 3(a-o) from (E)-1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(substituted)phenylprop-2-en-1-one and Urea in presence of NaOH. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

Abstract:
Synthesis of various dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol from (E)-1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(substituted)phenylprop-2-en-1-one and thiourea in presence of NaOH. The structures of thesynthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectral and elemental analysis.

Abstract:
Let $M$ be a fibered 3-manifold with multiple boundary components. We show that the fiber structure of $M$ transforms to closely related transversely oriented taut foliations realizing all rational multislopes in some open neighborhood of the multislope of the fiber. Each such foliation extends to a taut foliation in the closed 3-manifold obtained by Dehn filling along its boundary multislope. The existence of these foliations implies that certain contact structures are weakly symplectically fillable.