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Solving the Maximum Clique Problem with Symmetric Rank-One Nonnegative Matrix Approximation
Melisew Tefera Belachew,Nicolas Gillis
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Finding complete subgraphs in a graph, that is, cliques, is a key problem and has many real-world applications, e.g., finding communities in social networks, clustering gene expression data, modeling ecological niches in food webs, and describing chemicals in a substance. The problem of finding the largest clique in a graph is a well-known NP-hard problem and is called the maximum clique problem (MCP). In this paper, we formulate a very convenient continuous characterization of the MCP based on the symmetric rank-one nonnegative approximation of a given matrix, and build a one-to-one correspondence between stationary points of our formulation and cliques of a given graph. In particular, we show that the local (resp. global) minima of the continuous problem corresponds to the maximal (resp. maximum) cliques of the given graph. We also propose a new and efficient clique finding algorithm based on our continuous formulation and test it on various synthetic and real data sets to show that the new algorithm outperforms other existing algorithms based on the Motzkin-Straus formulation.
Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study
Tesfaye Setegn, Mulusew Gerbaba, Tefera Belachew
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-217
Abstract: A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding.The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P < 0.05). After adjust sting for other factors on the multivariable logistic model, being in the urban area [AOR: 4.1 (95%C.I: 2.31-7.30)] and getting postnatal counseling [AOR: 2.7(1.86-3.94)] were independent predictors of timely initiation of breastfeeding.The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers need special attention as they are distant from various information sources.Exclusive breastfeeding, preceded by timely initiation and appropriate complementary feeding practices are universally accepted as essential elements for the satisfactory growth and development of infants and for prevention of childhood illness [1-3]. Timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as putting the newborn to the breast within one hour of birth. Timely initiation of breastfeeding is not only the easiest, cost effective and most successful intervention; it also tops the table of life-saving interventions for the health of the
Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia
Mussie Alemayehu, Tefera Belachew, Tizta Tilahun
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-6
Abstract: A cross sectional community based survey was conducted from March 9-20, 2011. Multistage sample technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative methods whereas purposive sampling was used for the qualitative part of the study. Binary descriptive statistics and multiple variable regressions were done.The study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. From the quantitative part of the study the response rate of the study was 95.6%. Of the qualitative part two FGDs were conducted for each married women and married men. 64% of the married women heard about LAPMs. More than half (53.6%) of the married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAPMs. The overall prevalence of LAPMs use was 12.3% however; there were no users for female or male sterilization. The main reason cited by the majority of the married women for not using LAPMs was using another method of contraception 360 (93.3%). Mothers who had high knowledge were 8 times more likely to use LAPMs as compared with those who had low knowledge (AOR = 7.9, 95% CI of (3.1, 18.3). Mothers who had two or more pregnancies were 3 times more likely to use LAPM as compared with those who had one pregnancy (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI of (1.4, 5.1).A significant amount of the participants had low knowledge on permanent contraceptive particularly vasectomy. More than half (53.6%) of married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAMPs. Few of married women use female sterilization and none use of female sterilization and or vasectomy. Positive knowledge of LAMPs, women who had two and above pregnancies and women who do not want to have additional child were significantly associated. Information education communication should focus on alleviating factors hinder from practicing of LAPMs.An estimated 358 000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide in 2008, a 34% decline from the levels of 1990. Despite this decline, developing countries continued to account for 99% (355 000) of the deaths. Sub-Saha
Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Huruy Assefa,Tefera Belachew,Legesse Negash
ISRN Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/238546
Abstract: Background. Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual’s life. Socioeconomic status, age, sex, and mothers’ educational level are among the important determinant factors of nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, we test the competing hypotheses about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. Methods. We report a total of 2084 adolescents and univariate and multivariable linear regression were used to assess socioeconomic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents. Results. Age, highest grade completed, job, and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income, and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain, and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Conclusion. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status, and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended, and abdominal pain are associated with stunting. The findings reflect socio-economic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting. 1. Background of the study The world population is believed to have reached over 6.6 billion [1]. Adolescence is a particularly unique period in life because it is a time of intense physical, psychosocial, and cognitive development. Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual’s life. Increased nutritional needs to adolescents gain up to 50% of their adult weight, more than 20% of their adult height, and 50% of their adult skeletal mass [2]. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socioeconomic status, age, sex, and mothers’ educational level are among the important determinant factors of nutritional status of adolescents [3–6]. Studies have shown that adolescent women from low economic status households were most affected by malnutrition and the higher the level of education, the lower the proportion of undernourished adolescent women, and rural adolescent women are more likely to suffer from chronic energy deficiency than adolescent women in urban areas. [7, 8]. There are only a handful of studies on adolescent malnutrition in developing countries—they indicate that younger
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy among Recently Delivered Women in Public Health Facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tariku Laelago, Tefera Belachew, Meseret Tamrat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100997
Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence is recognized as a worldwide serious public health problem. It can cause serious injury, disability or death. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy are often similar to risk factors for intimate partner violence in general. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2014. Methods: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 195 recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia from March 31-April 30, 2014. The data were collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify predictors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Results: Twenty three percent (23%) of women experienced at least one form of Intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form (20%) followed by physical (15%) and sexual violence (12%). Alcohol drinking by the partners (AOR = 22 (7.4, 65.6), no formal education of the partners (AOR = 10.8 (1.06, 108.5) and planned pregnancy (AOR = 0.23 (0.08, 0.67) were significantly associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Our study established that intimate partner violence during pregnancy was a common experience. Partners’ alcohol drinking, no formal education of partners and planned pregnancy were associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health sector, police, lawyers and advocators should give due emphasis to the victims of this problem.
Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited setting of southwest ethiopia
Ayele Tiyou, Tefera Belachew, Fisehaye Alemseged, Sibhatu Biadgilign
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-7-39
Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2009 to March 3, 2009 among 319 adult PLWHA (≥ 18 years) attending ART clinic at Jimma university Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Multiple Logistic regression models were constructed with adherence and independent variables to identify the predictors.About 303(95%) of the study subjects were adherent based on self report of missed doses (dose adherence) in a one-week recall before the actual interview. The rate of self reported adherence in the study based on the combined indicator of the dose, time and food adherence measurement was 72.4%. Patients who got family support were 2 times [2.12(1.25-3.59)] more likely to adhere than those who didn't get family support as an independent predictor of overall adherence (dose, time and food). The reasons given for missing drugs were 9(27.3%) running out of medication/drug, 7(21.2%) being away from home and 7(21.2%) being busy with other things.The adherence rate found in this study is similar to other resource limited setting and higher than the developed country. This study highlights emphasis should be given for income generating activities and social supports that helps to remember the patients for medication taking and management of opportunistic infections during the course of treatment.The number of people living with HIV worldwide continued to grow in 2008, reaching an estimated 33.4 million [31.1 million-35.8 million]. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region most heavily affected by HIV. In 2008, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 67% of HIV infections worldwide, 68% of new HIV infections among adults. The region also accounted for 72% of the world's AIDS-related deaths in 2008 [1]. World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on the use of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings recognize the critical role of adherence in order to achieve clinical and programmatic success [2]. Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary to achieve the best vi
The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia
Shallo Daba Hamusse,Taye T. Balcha,Tefera Belachew
Global Health Action , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v5i0.11619
Abstract: Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.Methods: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses.Results: The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001). After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.
Self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes at the Jimma University Specialized Hospital in south-west Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study
Endalew Hailu,Wudineh H. Mariam,Tefera Belachew,Zewdie Birhanu
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v4i1.311
Abstract: Background: The main goal in diabetes care is to improve the patient’s quality of life, to maintain satisfactory metabolic control and to retain minimal complications caused by diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, this study has assessed self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes mellitus. Setting: A facility-based study amongst the diabetic follow-up clinic at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 April to 30 April 30 2010. A total of 343 diabetic patients were selected using a systematic sampling method. The data were collected by structured questionnaires and a medical card review; anthropometric measurement was done by trained nurses. Results: The study showed that 53% of the respondents had diabetes related knowledge. The study also found that 64% of the respondents were physically less active, and 17% of the respondents were walking on foot for less than 30 minutes per a day. Only 18.1% of the respondents were able to control their Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) to level below 126 mg/dL. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that the level of knowledge about diabetes and selfcare practices amongst diabetic patients were meager. In addition, it showed that respondents’ level of physical activity, their educational status, and the dose of oral hypoglycaemic agents taken by the respondents significantly affected glycaemic control. Pratique des autosoins et contr le de la glycémie chez des adultes souffrant de diabète à l’h pital universitaire spécialisé de Jimma dans le Sud-ouest de l’éthiopie: Une étude transversale Contexte: Le principal objectif de la prise en charge du diabète est d’améliorer la qualité de vie du patient, de maintenir un contr le métabolique satisfaisant et de limiter les complications causées par le diabète sucré. Cette étude a donc évalué la pratique des autosoins et le contr le glycémique chez des adultes souffrant de diabète sucré. Contexte: Une étude basée dans une structure de santé spécialisée dans le suivi des personnes souffrant de diabète à l’h pital universitaire spécialisé Jimma en éthiopie. Méthodes: Une étude transversale a été réalisée du 1er au 30 Avril 2010. Un total de 343 patients diabétiques a été sélectionné au moyen d’une méthode d’échantillonnage systématique. Les données ont été recueillies au moyen de questionnaires structurés et d’un examen du carnet de santé ; les mesures anthropométriques ont été réalisées par des infirmiers formés. Résultats: L’étude a indiqué que 53% des sondés disposaient de connaissances relatives
Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study
Birhanu Zewdie,Abdissa Alemseged,Belachew Tefera,Deribew Amare
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-83
Abstract: Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the local languages into English language. Key categories and thematic frameworks were identified using the health belief model as a framework, and presented in narratives using the respondents own words as an illustration. Results Participants had very low awareness of cervical cancer. However, once the symptoms were explained, participants had a high perception of the severity of the disease. The etiology of cervical cancer was thought to be due to breaching social taboos or undertaking unacceptable behaviors. As a result, the perceived benefits of modern treatment were very low, and various barriers to seeking any type of treatment were identified, including limited awareness and access to appropriate health services. Women with cervical cancer were excluded from society and received poor emotional support. Moreover, the aforementioned factors all caused delays in seeking any health care. Traditional remedies were the most preferred treatment option for early stage of the disease. However, as most cases presented late, treatment options were ineffective, resulting in an iterative pattern of health seeking behavior and alternated between traditional remedies and modern treatment methods. Conclusion Lack of awareness and health seeking behavior for cervical cancer was common due to misconceptions about the cause of the disease. Profound social consequences and exclusion were common. Access to services for diagnosis and treatment were poor for a variety of psycho-social, and health system reasons. Prior to the introduction or scale up of cervical cancer prevention programs, socio-cultural barriers and health service related factors that influence health seeking behavior must be addressed through appropriate community level behavior change communications.
Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Setegn Tesfaye,Belachew Tefera,Gerbaba Mulusew,Deribe Kebede
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-7-17
Abstract: Background Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding infants only breast milk, be it directly from breast or expressed, with no addition of any liquid or solids apart from drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine, and nothing else. Several studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality. However, in Ethiopia a large portion of infants are not exclusively breastfed according to the infant feeding recommendations. Understanding the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding is crucial to promoting the practice. This study was carried out to identify factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba district, south east Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to February 2010 involving both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 608 mothers were selected randomly. A convenience sampling technique was used to generate the qualitative data. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of exclusive breastfeeding after controlling for background variables. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 hours preceding the survey was 71.3%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was three months and mean frequency of breastfeeding was six times per day. Being unemployed [AOR: 10.4 (95% CI: 1.51, 71.50)] and age of infants of less than two months [AOR: 5.6 (95% CI: 2.28, 13.60)] were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions A large proportion of infants are not exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months, despite what is recommended in the national and global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) guidelines. Employed mothers were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, implying the need for promoting workplace breastfeeding practices and creating an enabling environment for exclusive breastfeeding. Extensions of maternity leave up to the first six month of child’s age to achieve optimal level of exclusive breastfeeding practices should also be looked into as an alternative solution.
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