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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7462 matches for " Ted Wilson "
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Pneumothorax as a predatory goal for the sabertooth cat (Smilodon fatalis)  [PDF]
Ted Wilson, Dirk E. Wilson, Jill M. Zimanske
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.31006
Abstract:

Smilodon fatalis was a large extinct felid distinguished by their two impressive maxillary canines and surprisingly low canine fracture rates. Previous theories regarding their attack strategy have suggested delivering damage by a bite with their maxillary canines. It has also been previously suggested that the canines could have been used to deliver a non-biting stab with an open jaw. It has been generally hypothesized that the attack was delivered to the neck of their large herbivore prey. Smilodon fatalis could have used their canines in a non-biting stab delivered with a closed jaw for the sole purpose of creating a pneumothorax. Creation of a pneumothorax would maximize immediate attack lethality, and minimize exposure of its canines to fracture.

Glycemic Response of Type 2 Diabetics to Raisins  [PDF]
Ted Wilson, Jared A. Anderson, Kristine F. Andersen, Rachael A. Heimerman, Megan M. Larson, Michelle R. Freeman, Sarah E. Baker
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38153
Abstract: Background: Raisins are a nutritious fruit snack containing fiber, antioxidants, and potassium. Diabetics tend to have low fruit intakes, possibly due to concerns about glycemic response. Aim: This study sought to characterize the utility of raisins as a way to improve fruit consumption by type 2 diabetics. Methods: Fasting type 2 diabetics randomly received 100 Calorie servings of bananas (BA; 103.1 g), white bread (WB; 40.2 g), raisins (RA; 30.3 g), or Thompson seedless grapes (TG; 112.4 g) on each of four separate lab visits in single cross-over fashion. Blood glucose (n = 15) and plasma insulin (n = 7) were measured before and 30, 60, 120 minutes after snack consumption. Results: Relative to baseline, blood glucose peaked significantly at 30 minutes for TG, RA and WB at 204.6 ± 16.2, 180.5 ± 12.7, and 176.2 ± 12.2 mg/dL, respectively, the 30 minute value for BA (173.2 ± 11.6 mg/dL) approached significance (p = 0.12). At 30 minutes, the blood glucose values for BA and TG differed significantly, at all other times no significant differences were observed, and all values returned to near baseline 120 minutes after consumption. Postprandial plasma insulin increased for all treatments, though not significantly. Conclusion: The extended shelf life and portability of raisins may make them an attractive choice for improving fruit consumption in type 2 diabetics.
LC-MS-MS Analysis and the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids from Eggplant Skins Grown in Organic and Conventional Environments  [PDF]
Ajay P. Singh, Yifei Wang, Rachel M. Olson, Devanand Luthria, Gary S. Banuelos, Sajeemas Pasakdee, Nicholi Vorsa, Ted Wilson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.89063
Abstract: Eggplant fruits are known to contain different classes of phenolic phytochemicals (flavonols, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins) that can exert beneficial effects on human health. This study developed methods for the qualitative and quantitative composition analysis of phenolic compounds in the skin of eggplant fruits harvested following conventional and certified organic farming conditions. Eggplant skin was extracted using aqueous methanol prior to phenolic profiling with UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS. Eggplant skin extracts yielded a profile of 16 phenolic acids, 4 anthocyanins, and 11 flavonols, the first report of quercetin-3-diglucoside, myricetin-3-neohesperidoside, myricetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol-3,7-diglucoside, kaempferol-diglucoside and quercetin-3-rhamnoside. Polyphenolic extracts from all sources potently delayed the cupric ion-mediated lag-time for LDL lipid oxidation and protected Apo-B100 proteins against oxidative modification. Organic growing environment positively influences eggplant skin extract phenolic profile but not antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, eggplant skin has a robust profile of phenolic phytochemicals with excellent antioxidant properties.
Beziehung herstellen, Sprechen, Zuh ren: Für eine Ethik der Vielstimmigkeit innerhalb partizipativer Forschung Connecting, Speaking, Listening: Toward an Ethics of Voice with/in Participatory Action Research Conectar, hablar, escuchar: Hacia una etica de la voz en/dentro de la investigación acción participativa
Ted Riecken,Teresa Strong-Wilson,Frank Conibear,Corrine Michel
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Rückgreifend auf Erfahrungen im Rahmen eines partizipatorischen Forschungsprojekts über Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden, das Forschende aus Universit ten mit zwei Klassen jugendlicher Aborigines und deren Lehrer(inne)n zusammenbrachte, sprechen wir uns für eine Ethik der Vielstimmigkeit in der qualitativen Forschung aus. In dem Projekt planten und entwickelten Studierende kurze Aufkl rungsfilme zu Wohlbefinden und zu Gesundheitsthemen, indem sie sich partizipatorischer Forschungsmethoden und digitaler Videotechnologien bedienten. Wir veranschaulichen die ethischen Dimensionen in den Darstellungen der Studierenden und die Perspektiven der Lehrer(innen) und Forscher(innen) über das im Projekt Gelernte, indem wir den unterschiedlichen Stimmen und Interessen im Projekt Ausdruck verleihen. Durch das Kombinieren von Interviewsegmenten und Feldnotizen mit reflektivem Schreiben erzeugen wir eine experimentelle Darstellungsform, die die Wichtigkeit des Kenntlichmachens der "Voices" in der Konstruktion und der Wiedergabe von Forschungsergebnissen veranschaulichen soll. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501260 Drawing on a participatory research project that brings together university based researchers and two classes of Aboriginal youth and their teachers for the purpose of researching health and wellness, we argue for an ethics of voice in qualitative research. Using participatory research methodologies and digital video technologies students plan and develop short educational films about issues of health and wellness. We exemplify the ethical issues in the presentation of student, teacher and researcher perspectives on what was learned through involvement in a project by incorporating the different voices and interests that comprise the project. An experimental form of representation is used to combine interview segments, fieldnotes and reflective writing so as to highlight the importance of voice in the construction and retelling of research outcomes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501260 Basados en un proyecto de investigación participativa que colocó juntos a investigadores universitarios y dos clases de jóvenes aborígenes y sus profesores a fin de investigar salud y bienestar, abogamos por una ética de la voz en la investigación cualitativa. Mediante metodologías de acción participativa y tecnologías de video digital los estudiantes planearon y desarrollaron cortometrajes educativos sobre temas de salud y bienestar. Ejemplificamos los temas éticos en la presentación de las perspectivas del investigador, profesor y estudiante sobre lo que se aprendió durante el proyecto al inc
ClassTR: Classifying Within-Host Heterogeneity Based on Tandem Repeats with Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
Leonid Chindelevitch?,Caroline Colijn?,Prashini Moodley?,Douglas Wilson,Ted Cohen
PLOS Computational Biology , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004475
Abstract: Genomic tools have revealed genetically diverse pathogens within some hosts. Within-host pathogen diversity, which we refer to as “complex infection”, is increasingly recognized as a determinant of treatment outcome for infections like tuberculosis. Complex infection arises through two mechanisms: within-host mutation (which results in clonal heterogeneity) and reinfection (which results in mixed infections). Estimates of the frequency of within-host mutation and reinfection in populations are critical for understanding the natural history of disease. These estimates influence projections of disease trends and effects of interventions. The genotyping technique MLVA (multiple loci variable-number tandem repeats analysis) can identify complex infections, but the current method to distinguish clonal heterogeneity from mixed infections is based on a rather simple rule. Here we describe ClassTR, a method which leverages MLVA information from isolates collected in a population to distinguish mixed infections from clonal heterogeneity. We formulate the resolution of complex infections into their constituent strains as an optimization problem, and show its NP-completeness. We solve it efficiently by using mixed integer linear programming and graph decomposition. Once the complex infections are resolved into their constituent strains, ClassTR probabilistically classifies isolates as clonally heterogeneous or mixed by using a model of tandem repeat evolution. We first compare ClassTR with the standard rule-based classification on 100 simulated datasets. ClassTR outperforms the standard method, improving classification accuracy from 48% to 80%. We then apply ClassTR to a sample of 436 strains collected from tuberculosis patients in a South African community, of which 92 had complex infections. We find that ClassTR assigns an alternate classification to 18 of the 92 complex infections, suggesting important differences in practice. By explicitly modeling tandem repeat evolution, ClassTR helps to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving within-host diversity of pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The Heritability Challenge to Evolution and Materialism: An Opening for Religious Perspectives  [PDF]
Ted Christopher
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.84025
Abstract: There are under-appreciated, serious behavioral challenges to science’s understanding of life and its evolution. The general challenge to that understanding, though, has unfolded in the form of pervasive failures in the search for the DNA origins of many heritable characteristics. Science has placed enormous faith in the presumed workings of DNA, including of course as a foundation for evolution. The stunning inability to identify the DNA bases for many heritable characteristics amongst humans—sometimes termed the missing heritability problem—is a big challenge to the largely unquestioned, biological vision. This situation is discussed herein along with its possible implications for religious perspectives.
English and Black Walnut Phenolic Antioxidant Activity in Vitro and Following Human Nut Consumption  [PDF]
Jacki M Rorabaugh, Ajay P Singh, Isabel M Sherrell, Michelle R Freeman, Nicholi Vorsa, Peter Fitschen, Christopher Malone, Margaret A Maher, Ted Wilson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23026
Abstract: Background: Walnut consumption may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by providing antioxidant protection to low density lipoproteins (LDL). Aim: This study compared the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of English ver- sus black walnuts. Methods: Nuts were extracted in methanol or acetone prior to analysis with HPLC/LC-MS-MS for phenolic identification and quantitation. The ability to prevent oxidation of LDL was examined in vitro using walnut extracts and ex vivo after walnut consumption for 28 days. Results: Flavonoids identified/quantified with HPLC/LC- MS-MS included the phenolic acids 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (black walnut only), 4-caffeoylquinic acid, and the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-pentoside, quercetin-3- arabinoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, and the aglycone quercetin (English walnut only). Total phenolic yield of acetone extracts were 166.1 and 24.2 µg/g for English and black walnut respectively, and yield for methanol extracts were 147.6 and 4.1 µg/g for English and black walnut respectively. In vitro LDL oxidation by Cu++ with English walnut ex- tracts significantly extended oxidation lag-time (A234) in a dose dependent manner at 1.0 and 0.1 µg/ml and reduced TBARS formation (1.0 µg/ml). Black walnut extracts reduced TBARS significantly but had no effect on A234. Human consumption of English or black walnuts (30 g nuts/day) for 28 days resulted in no differences in LDL antioxidant ca- pacity (A234) between groups or within groups. Conclusion: This study suggests that the English walnuts have a pheno- lic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity that is better than black walnuts, but that walnut consumption for 28 days does not improve LDL resistance to oxidation.
The Prevalence and Drug Sensitivity of Tuberculosis among Patients Dying in Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Postmortem Study
Ted Cohen ,Megan Murray,Kristina Wallengren,Gonzalo G. Alvarez,Elizabeth Y. Samuel,Douglas Wilson
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000296
Abstract: Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in South Africa by death notification, but accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is challenging in this setting of high HIV prevalence. We conducted limited autopsies on young adults dying in a single public hospital in the province of KwaZulu-Natal between October 2008 and August 2009 in order to estimate the magnitude of deaths attributable to tuberculosis. Methods and Findings We studied a representative sample of 240 adult inpatients (aged 20–45 years) dying after admission to Edendale Hospital. Limited autopsies included collection of respiratory tract secretions and tissue by needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and spleen. Specimens were examined by fluorescent microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and cultured in liquid media; cultures positive for M. tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility to first- and second-line antibiotics. Ninety-four percent of our study cohort was HIV seropositive and 50% of decedents had culture-positive tuberculosis at the time of death. Fifty percent of the participants were on treatment for tuberculosis at the time of death and 58% of these treated individuals remained culture positive at the time of death. Of the 50% not receiving tuberculosis treatment, 42% were culture positive. Seventeen percent of all positive cultures were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin (i.e., multidrug resistant); 16% of patients dying during the initiation phase of their first ever course of tuberculosis treatment were infected with multidrug-resistant bacilli. Conclusions Our findings reveal the immense toll of tuberculosis among HIV-positive individuals in KwaZulu-Natal. The majority of decedents who remained culture positive despite receiving tuberculosis treatment were infected with pan-susceptible M. tuberculosis, suggesting that the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made too late to alter the fatal course of the infection. There is also a significant burden of undetected multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-coinfected individuals dying in this setting. New public health approaches that improve early diagnosis of tuberculosis and accelerate the initiation of treatment are urgently needed in this setting. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
The older people, omega-3, and cognitive health (EPOCH) trial design and methodology: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial investigating the effect of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive ageing and wellbeing in cognitively healthy older adults
Vanessa Danthiir, Nicholas R Burns, Ted Nettelbeck, Carlene Wilson, Gary Wittert
Nutrition Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-117
Abstract: The study was a parallel, 18-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with assessment at baseline and repeated 6-monthly. Participants (N = 391, 53.7% female) aged 65-90 years, English-speaking and with normal cognitive function, were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants in the intervention arm received capsules containing fish-oil at a daily dosage of 1720 mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 600 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm received the equivalent amount of olive oil in their capsules. The primary outcome is rate of change in cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables for the cognitive constructs (encompassing Reasoning, Working Memory, Short-term Memory, Retrieval Fluency, Inhibition, Simple and Choice-Reaction Time, Perceptual Speed, Odd-man-out Reaction Time, Speed of Memory Scanning, and Psychomotor Speed) and assessed by latent growth curve modeling. Secondary outcomes are change in the Mini-mental State Examination, functional capacity and well-being (including health status, depression, mood, and self-report cognitive functioning), blood pressure, and biomarkers of n-3 LC PUFA status, glucose, lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12607000278437Ageing is accompanied by what is normally considered to be inevitable cognitive decline, although the extent to which this occurs is highly variable, and strongly affected by various disease processes. Cognitive function is a major determinant of quality of life in older age and decline in cognitive functioning is a primary contributing factor to increasing dependency in the elderly. Due to the ageing profile of the population, the financial, social, and other burdens that this dependency places upon society are of increasing concern. Thus, finding ways to prevent or ameliorate age-related cognitive decline is a public health imperative, with po
Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss
Bridget A Cassady, Nicole L Charboneau, Emily E Brys, Kristin A Crouse, Donald C Beitz, Ted Wilson
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-23
Abstract: Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period.Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet.Obesity is a primary risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality [1]. Between 2001 and 2002, 65.7 % of Americans were classified as clinically overweight or obese [2]. Presently, 29% of men and 24% of women claim to be attempting to lose weight or maintain previously achieved weight losses [3]. Orthodox dietary recommendations seek to promote weight loss, weight control or improved plasma lipid profiles by placing upper limits on the total intake of sugars, fat, and cholesterol [4,5]. The American Heart Association, for example, recommends that persons consume less than 300 mg cholesterol/day [4]. A fat intake of greater than 35 % of total calories has been suggested to increase saturated fat intake which, in theory, also makes avoidance of excess caloric intake difficult [5]. The same guidelines suggest maintaining carbohydrate intake between 45 and 65% of total calories [5].Low carbohydrate diets (LCD) are associated with a fat intake percentage that typically exceeds orthodox recommendations. LCDs represent a way to reduce caloric intake, promote weight loss, and reduce the atherogenicity of the plasma lip
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