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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225084 matches for " Ted R. Schultz "
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Cyatta abscondita: Taxonomy, Evolution, and Natural History of a New Fungus-Farming Ant Genus from Brazil
Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ted R. Schultz, Carlos R. F. Brand?o, Christiana Klingenberg, Rodrigo M. Feitosa, Christian Rabeling, Maurício Bacci, Cauê T. Lopes, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080498
Abstract: Cyatta abscondita, a new genus and species of fungus-farming ant from Brazil, is described based on morphological study of more than 20 workers, two dealate gynes, one male, and two larvae. Ecological field data are summarized, including natural history, nest architecture, and foraging behavior. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from four nuclear genes indicate that Cyatta abscondita is the distant sister taxon of the genus Kalathomyrmex, and that together they comprise the sister group of the remaining neoattine ants, an informal clade that includes the conspicuous and well-known leaf-cutter ants. Morphologically, Cyatta abscondita shares very few obvious character states with Kalathomyrmex. It does, however, possess a number of striking morphological features unique within the fungus-farming tribe Attini. It also shares morphological character states with taxa that span the ancestral node of the Attini. The morphology, behavior, and other biological characters of Cyatta abscondita are potentially informative about plesiomorphic character states within the fungus-farming ants and about the early evolution of ant agriculture.
Do Purpose-Designed Auditory Tasks Measure General Speediness?  [PDF]
Ian T. Zajac, Nicholas R. Burns, Ted Nettelbeck
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2012.22004
Abstract: This study was concerned with the measurement of General Speediness (Gs) using the auditory modality. Existing as well as purpose-developed auditory tasks that maintained the cognitive requirements of established visually presented Gs marker tests were completed by N = 80 university undergraduates. Analyses supported the results of our previous work [1] and auditory and visual tasks combined to define latent RT and Gs factors. Moreover, the analysis did not support the presence of modality-specific speed factors. Overall, this study provides further evidence suggesting that auditory tasks might successfully measure existing broad abilities defined in intelligence theories (i.e., Gf, Gc, etc.) provided they maintain the same cognitive requirements as existing visual measures of such constructs.
Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues
Ted (E.R) Armstrong
Rangifer , 1998,
Abstract: Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou) range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's) across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces) habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.
ALGORITHMS FOR MEAN-RISK STOCHASTIC INTEGER PROGRAMS IN ENERGY
Rüdiger Schultz, Frederike Neise
Revista Investigación Operacional , 2007,
Abstract: We introduce models and algorithms suitable for including risk aversion into stochastic programming problems in energy. For a system with dispersed generation of power and heat we present computational results showing the superiority of our decomposition algorithm over a standard mixed-integer linear programming solver.
Temporal correlations and neural spike train entropy
Simon R. Schultz,Stefano Panzeri
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5823
Abstract: Sampling considerations limit the experimental conditions under which information theoretic analyses of neurophysiological data yield reliable results. We develop a procedure for computing the full temporal entropy and information of ensembles of neural spike trains, which performs reliably for limited samples of data. This approach also yields insight upon the role of correlations between spikes in temporal coding mechanisms. The method, when applied to recordings from complex cells of the monkey primary visual cortex, results in lower RMS error information estimates in comparison to a `brute force' approach.
A unified approach to the study of temporal, correlational and rate coding
S. Panzeri,S. R. Schultz
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We demonstrate that the information contained in the spike occurrence times of a population of neurons can be broken up into a series of terms, each of which reflect something about potential coding mechanisms. This is possible in the coding r{\'e}gime in which few spikes are emitted in the relevant time window. This approach allows us to study the additional information contributed by spike timing beyond that present in the spike counts; to examine the contributions to the whole information of different statistical properties of spike trains, such as firing rates and correlation functions; and forms the basis for a new quantitative procedure for the analysis of simultaneous multiple neuron recordings. It also provides theoretical constraints upon neural coding strategies. We find a transition between two coding r{\'e}gimes, depending upon the size of the relevant observation timescale. For time windows shorter than the timescale of the stimulus-induced response fluctuations, there exists a spike count coding phase, where the purely temporal information is of third order in time. For time windows much longer than the characteristic timescale, there can be additional timing information of first order, leading to a temporal coding phase in which timing information may affect the instantaneous information rate. We study the relative contributions of the dynamic firing rate and correlation variables to the full temporal information; the interaction of signal and noise correlations in temporal coding; synergy between spikes and between cells; and the effect of refractoriness. We illustrate the utility of the technique by analysis of a few cells from the rat barrel cortex.
The Heritability Challenge to Evolution and Materialism: An Opening for Religious Perspectives  [PDF]
Ted Christopher
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.84025
Abstract: There are under-appreciated, serious behavioral challenges to science’s understanding of life and its evolution. The general challenge to that understanding, though, has unfolded in the form of pervasive failures in the search for the DNA origins of many heritable characteristics. Science has placed enormous faith in the presumed workings of DNA, including of course as a foundation for evolution. The stunning inability to identify the DNA bases for many heritable characteristics amongst humans—sometimes termed the missing heritability problem—is a big challenge to the largely unquestioned, biological vision. This situation is discussed herein along with its possible implications for religious perspectives.
Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?
Mark R. Vinson, Ted R. Angradi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098046
Abstract: We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.
Impaired immune responses in the lungs of aged mice following influenza infection
Franklin R Toapanta, Ted M Ross
Respiratory Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-10-112
Abstract: In this study, aged and adult mice were infected with sublethal doses of influenza virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934). Differences in weight loss, morbidity, virus titer and the kinetics of lung infiltration with cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses were analyzed. Additionally, the main cytokines and chemokines produced by these cells were also assayed.Compared to adult mice, aged mice had higher morbidity, lost weight more rapidly, and recovered more slowly from infection. There was a delay in the accumulation of granulocytic cells and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), but not macrophages in the lungs of aged mice compared to adult animals. The delayed infiltration kinetics of APCs in aged animals correlated with alteration in their activation (CD40 expression), which also correlated with a delayed detection of cytokines and chemokines in lung homogenates. This was associated with retarded lung infiltration by natural killer (NK), CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, the percentage of activated (CD69+) influenza-specific and IL-2 producer CD8+ T-cells was higher in adult mice compared to aged ones. Additionally, activation (CD69+) of adult B-cells was earlier and correlated with a quicker development of neutralizing antibodies in adult animals.Overall, alterations in APC priming and activation lead to delayed production of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs that ultimately affected the infiltration of immune cells following influenza infection. This resulted in delayed activation of the adaptive immune response and subsequent delay in clearance of virus and prolonged illness in aged animals. Since the elderly are the fastest growing segment of the population in developed countries, a better understanding of the changes that occur in the immune system during the aging process is a priority for the development of new vaccines and adjuvants to improve the immune responses in this population.Influenza virus infects a variety of species, including swine, hor
The linear MHD Taylor-Couette instability for liquid sodium
G. Rüdiger,M. Schultz,D. Shalybkov
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.67.046312
Abstract: The linear stability of MHD Taylor-Couette flow of infinite vertical extension is considered for liquid sodium with its small magnetic Prandtl number Pm of order of 10^-5 and an uniform axial magnetic field. The sign of the constant a in the basic rotation law \Omega=a+b/R^2 strongly influences the presented results. It is negative for resting outer cylinder. The main point here is that the subcritical excitation which occurs for large Pm disappears for small Pm. This is the reason that the existence of the magnetorotational instability remained unknown over decades. For rotating outer cylinder the limiting case a=0 plays an exceptional role. The hydromagnetic instability exists with certain Reynolds numbers at certain Hartmann numbers of the magnetic field. These Reynolds numbers exactly scale with Pm^-1/2 resulting in moderate values of order 10^4 for Pm=10^-5. However, already for the smallest positive value of a the Reynolds numbers start to scale as 1/Pm leading to much higher values of order 10^6 for Pm=10^-5. Also nonaxisymmetric modes have been considered. With vacuum boundary conditions their excitation is always more difficult than the excitation of axisymmetric modes; we never observed a crossover of the lines of marginal stability. For conducting walls, however, such crossovers exist for both resting and rotating outer cylinders, and this might be essential for future dynamo experiments.
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