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Performance of the Genotype? MTBDRPlus assay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug resistance in Samara, Russian Federation
Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Yanina Balabanova, Tatyana Simak, Nadezhda Malomanova, Ivan Fedorin, Francis Drobniewski
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-9-2
Abstract: We performed an evaluation of the GenoType? MTBDRplus assay (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Germany) on a total of 168 sputum specimens from individual patients at a public health laboratory in Central Russia, as a model of a middle income site in a region with high levels of drug resistance. Phenotypic drug resistance tests (DST) were performed on cultures derived from the same sputum specimens using the BACTEC 960 liquid media system.Interpretable GenoType? MTBDRplus results were obtained for 154(91.7%) specimens with readability rates significantly higher in sputum specimens graded 2+ and 3+ compared to 1+ (RR = 1.17 95%CI 1.04–1.32). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance and MDR was 96.2%, 97.4%, 97.1% and 90.7%, 83.3%, 88.9% respectively. Mutations in codon 531 of the rpoB gene and codon 315 of the katG gene dominated in RIF and INH resistant strains respectively. Disagreements between phenotypical and molecular tests results (12 samples) could be explained by the presence of rare mutations in strains circulating in Russia and simultaneous presence of resistant and sensitive bacilli in sputum specimens (heteroresistance).High sensitivity, short turnaround times and the potential for screening large numbers of specimens rapidly, make the GenoType? MTBDRplus assay suitable as a first-line screening assay for drug resistant TB.Emergence of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDRTB, i.e. resistance to at least rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in conjunction with increasing rates of HIV infection worldwide makes the rapid detection of TB drug resistance a key factor in patients' management and care. Rapid (within 1–2 days) diagnosis of MDRTB in clinical specimens allows the commencement of an appropriate TB treatment regimen earlier and helps to prevent transmission of drug resistant TB bacilli.The WHO estimates current MDRTB rates in new and previously treated cases globally at 2.9% and 15.3% re
An Integrated Approach to Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Multidrug Resistance Using Liquid Culture and Molecular Methods in Russia
Yanina Balabanova, Francis Drobniewski, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Annika Kruuner, Nadezhda Malomanova, Tatyana Simak, Nailya Ilyina, Svetlana Zakharova, Natalya Lebedeva, Heather L. Alexander, Rick O'Brien, Hojoon Sohn, Anastasia Shakhmistova, Ivan Fedorin
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007129
Abstract: Objective To analyse the feasibility, cost and performance of rapid tuberculosis (TB) molecular and culture systems, in a high multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) middle-income region (Samara, Russia) and provide evidence for WHO policy change. Methods Performance and cost evaluation was conducted to compare the BACTEC? MGIT? 960 system for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular systems for TB diagnosis, resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, and MDR TB identification compared to conventional Lowenstein-Jensen culture assays. Findings 698 consecutive patients (2487 sputum samples) with risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis were recruited. Overall M. tuberculosis complex culture positivity rates were 31.6% (787/2487) in MGIT and 27.1% (675/2487) in LJ (90.5% and 83.2% for smear-positive specimens). In total, 809 cultures of M. tuberculosis complex were isolated by any method. Median time to detection was 14 days for MGIT and 36 days for LJ (10 and 33 days for smear positive specimens) and indirect DST in MGIT took 9 days compared to 21 days on LJ. There was good concordance between DST on LJ and MGIT (96.8% for rifampin and 95.6% for isoniazid). Both molecular hybridization assay results correlated well with MGIT DST results, although molecular assays generally yielded higher rates of resistance (by approximately 3% for both isoniazid and rifampin). Conclusion With effective planning and logistics, the MGIT 960 and molecular based methodologies can be successfully introduced into a reference laboratory setting in a middle incidence country. High rates of MDR TB in the Russian Federation make the introduction of such assays particularly useful.
Speech Distortion Minimized Noise Reduction Algorithm
Ekaterina Verteletskaya,Boris Simak
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2010,
Noise Reduction Based on Modified Spectral Subtraction Method
Ekaterina Verteletskaya,Boris Simak
IAENG International Journal of Computer Science , 2011,
Spectral Subtractive Type Speech Enhancement Methods
Ekaterina Verteletskaya,Boris Simak
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper spectral subtractive method and some of its modification are compared. Performance of spectral subtraction, its limitations, artifacts introduced by it, and spectral subtraction modifications for eliminating these artifacts are discussed in the paper in details. The algorithms are compared based on SNR improvement introduced by them. Spectrograms of speech enhanced by the algorithms, which show the algorithms performance and degree of speech distortion, are also presented.
MODERN CONDITION AND PROBLEMS OF THE JUDICIAL INVESTIGATION IN A COURT OF FIRST-INSTANCE Современное состояние и проблемы судебного следствия в суде первой инстанции
Simak A. I.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2013,
Abstract: In this scientific article, the author examines the issues related to the current state and problems of the judicial inquiry at the first instance court. Arguments and the refined concept of criminalistically provided judicial investigation are given, as well as typical legal situations and judicial versions and the algorithm of actions of a judge, a state Prosecutor and defense counsel which were developed on their basis
The Software for Constructing Trails with Local Restrictions in Graphs  [PDF]
Tatyana Panyukova, Igor Alferov
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.32017

The present research considers the problem of covering a graph with minimal number of trails satisfying the pre-defined local restrictions. The research is devoted to the problem of graph covering by minimal number of trails satisfying some local restrictions. Algotithm of allowed Eulerian cycle construction is considered. The authors showed that it is possible to recognize the system of transitions and solve the problem of constructing the allowable path by linear time. Its also possible to find allowable Eulerian cycle for Eulerian graph or to proclaim that such a cycle does not exist by the time O(|V(G).|E(G)|). All presented algorithms have the software realization.

Analysis of the Integral Efficiency Indicator for Information Systems of the Cyclic Type Accounting for Weights  [PDF]
Tatyana Yuldashevа, Juliya Doronina
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.12002
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the task of developing efficient means to analyze functioning of an information system of the cyclic type based on determining the integral performance criterion. We consider the subject area related to the analysis of moments of peak loads in teaching (admissions, conducting tests and examinations, accreditation of a university, etc.). The criterion is developed based on the analysis of all the processes occurring in the information system (IS) of a university and based on the selection of main factors affecting the change in the effective functioning of the university departments. Certain qualitative and quantitative parameters affecting the integral index of efficiency are considered at various times, since functioning of the whole system is cyclical. A weight for each criterion is accounted for in the integral indicator of efficiency. The proposed approach will allow for simplification of the research of efficiency characteristics of the information systems of the cyclic type based on the analysis of the integral coefficient.
An Extreme Value Analysis of Wind Speed over the European and Siberian Parts of Arctic Region  [PDF]
Alexander Kislov, Tatyana Matveeva
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.62018
Abstract: Multiyear observed time series of wind speed for selected points of the Arctic region (data of station network from the Kola Peninsula to the Chukotka Peninsula) are used to highlight the important peculiarities of wind speed extreme statistics. How largest extremes could be simulated by climate model (the INM-CM4 model data from the Historical experiment of the CMIP5) is also discussed. Extreme value analysis yielded that a volume of observed samples of wind speeds are strictly divided into two sets of variables. Statistical properties of one population are sharply different from another. Because the common statistical conditions are the sign of identity of extreme events we therefore hypothesize that two groups of extreme wind events adhere to different circulation processes. A very important message is that the procedure of selection can be realized easily based on analysis of the cumulative distribution function. The authors estimate the properties of the modelled extremes and conclude that they consist of only the samples, adhering to one group. This evidence provides a clue that atmospheric model with a coarse spatial resolution does not simulate special mechanism responsible for appearance of largest wind speed extremes. Therefore, the tasks where extreme wind is needed cannot be explicitly solved using the output of climate model. The finding that global models are unable to capture the wind extremes is already well known, but information that they are members of group with the specific statistical conditions provides new knowledge. Generally, the implemented analytical approach allows us to detect that the extreme wind speed events adhere to different statistical models. Events located above the threshold value are much more pronounced than representatives of another group (located below the threshold value) predicted by the extrapolation of law distributions in their tail. The same situation is found in different areas of science where the data referring to the same nomenclature are adhering to different statistical models. This result motivates our interest on our ability to detect, analyze, and understand such different extremes.
Evaluation of Radiographic Repeat Rate Data and Film Reject Analysis of Radiology Departments in Several Hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Simak Sabzevari,Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background/Objective: Rejected and repeated"nradiographies are one of the most frequent difficulties"nin radiography. The dose received by patients,"nequipment fault, costs and patients wait time increases"nby increasing film rejection and repeat rate. Moreover,"nthis leads to decreasing the care level because of the"ndelay in film report. This study aims to evaluate the"nfilm rejection and repeat rate in university-affiliated"nhospitals of Hamadan City."nMaterials and Methods: After reviewing the related"narticles about film rejection and their mentioned"nreasons for repeat rate, a checklist was designed for"nevaluating film rejection and the related reasons."nReject rate data was evaluated by study executives,"nsecretly in each hospital, for a 6-month-period and"nnoted on checklists. Statistical analysis was performed"nby descriptive statistics and related statistical tests, by"nSPSS software."nResults: The repeat rate was between 2.67% and"n6.84% (mean, 6.13%) in the evaluated hospitals. The"nmain factors of film rejection belonged to patient's"nmovement or bad condition (26.6%) and improper"nexposure factors (23.4%). The repeat rate data in"nradiography of the neck (9%) and pelvis (8.6%) was"nthe highest amount and in radiography of the chest"n(3.8%) was the lowest amount."nConclusion: Annually waste costs because of film"nrejection, other than costs related to processing"nsolutions and equipment outwearing, was calculated as"napproximately one hundred million Rials. So, special"nattention to this subject seems to be necessary."nKeywords: Film Rejects, Radiology, Repeat Rate
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