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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1265 matches for " Tatsuo Nakagawa "
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Thoracic Duct Cyst of the Anterior Mediastinum  [PDF]
Masao Saito, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Naohisa Chiba, Yasuto Sakaguchi, Shinya Ishikawa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2014.44017
Abstract: Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is a rare benign cystic disease. The lesion is generally in the post-erior or superior mediastinum, where the thoracic duct passes. We herein report an extremely rare case of surgically resected anterior mediastinal thoracic duct cyst. A thoracic duct cyst should be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal lesion.
Surgical Treatment for Mediastinal Lymph Node Carcinoma of Unknown Primary  [PDF]
Masao Saito, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Naohisa Chiba, Yasuto Sakaguchi, Shinya Ishikawa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2014.44018
Abstract: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is occasionally encountered in clinical oncology. Wide variation exists in CUP. We herein report a rare case of CUP of a mediastinal lymph node. A 61-year-old man with dermatomyositis was referred to our hospital for treatment of mediastinal adenopathy and gastric cancer. Biopsy of both lesions showed that they were histologically different from each other. Mediastinal lymphadenectomy and total gastrectomy were performed for a definitive diagnosis and radical cure. Pathological examination revealed two distinctly different disease processes. The patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy for residual gastric cancer. Twenty months postoperatively, he is alive with cancer. Although CUP usually has a poor prognosis, surgical treatment of metastatic mediastinal lymph node CUP is a feasible therapeutic option.
Auxin-inducible protein depletion system in fission yeast
Mai Kanke, Kohei Nishimura, Masato Kanemaki, Tatsuo Kakimoto, Tatsuro S Takahashi, Takuro Nakagawa, Hisao Masukata
BMC Cell Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-12-8
Abstract: We constructed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) system, which utilizes auxin-dependent poly-ubiquitination of Aux/IAA proteins by SCFTIR1 in plants, in fission yeast. Although expression of a plant F-box protein, TIR1, decreased Mcm4-aid, a component of the MCM complex essential for DNA replication tagged with Aux/IAA peptide, depletion did not result in an evident growth defect. We successfully improved degradation efficiency of Mcm4-aid by fusion of TIR1 with fission yeast Skp1, a conserved F-box-interacting component of SCF (improved-AID system; i-AID), and the cells showed severe defect in growth. The i-AID system induced degradation of Mcm4-aid in the chromatin-bound MCM complex as well as those in soluble fractions. The i-AID system in conjunction with transcription repression (off-AID system), we achieved more efficient depletion of other proteins including Pol1 and Cdc45, causing early S phase arrest.Improvement of the AID system allowed us to construct conditional null mutants of S. pombe. We propose that the off-AID system is the powerful method for in vivo protein-depletion in fission yeast.Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a widely used model organism for analysis of important cellular functions [1-3]. The use of conditional inactivation by mutations or depletion of proteins in vivo has been used successfully for analysis of gene functions. A conditional protein degradation system, so-called "degron", which depletes proteins from cells, is a powerful tool for analyzing the "null" phenotype of various genes. In budding yeast, a heat-inducible degron (ts-degron) system has been devised [4,5] and used for studies of essential gene functions [6,7]. In fission yeast, the ts-degron mutant of Bir1, a nuclear protein involved in mitotic segregation, has been reported to cause destruction of the protein, resulting in growth defects at restrictive temperature [8]. For functional analysis, however, as this system is unable to deplete proteins sufficiently to arrest the c
Cancer-Associated Lymphatic and Venous Vessels in Colonic Carcinomas  [PDF]
Tatsuo Tomita
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.43016

Objective: Colonic carcinomas spread to regional lymph nodes and liver. There are cancer-associated lymphatic and venous vessels at the margin of colonic carcinomas, which facilitate spreading carcinoma through lymphatic and venous vessels. This study aimed to examine cancer-associated lymphatic and venous vessels in TNM T1 to T3 carcinomas using lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor for lymphatic vessels and von Willebrand factor for venous vessels by immunocytochemical staining. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 cases of moderately differentiated colonic carcinoma were studied using routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. The cases consisted of 10 cases of TNM T1, 15 cases each of T2 and T3 cases. Immunocytochemical staining was performed using goat antihuman LYVE-1for lymphatic vessels and rabbit antihuman von Willebrand factor for venous vessels. Results: In TNM T1 carcinoma, increased, irregular and narrow lymphatic and venous vessels were present in the adjacent normal mucosa to the carcinoma, some of which penetrated cancerous lesion. There were no tumor emboli in lymphatic and venous vessels. In TNM T2 carcinoma, there were few lymphatic and venous vessels in midst of the carcinoma whereas numerous small lymphatic and venous vessels were present within muscle layers adjacent to the invading carcinoma. Extramural tumor embolus

Tumor-Associated Lymphatic and Venous Vessels in Medullary Thyroid Carcinomas  [PDF]
Tatsuo Tomita
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2015.52008
Abstract: Objective: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) invade local lymph node through lymphatic vessels and metastasize to distant organs hematogenously and account for a significant mortality. There are possibly increased lymphatic and venous vessels, through which the tumor spreads to lymph nodes and distant organs. Materials and Methods: By immunocytochemical staining for lymphatic and venous vessels, MTC lesions with adjacent normal thyroid and both normal and metastatic lymph nodes were studied for the peritumoral lymphatic and venous vessels, which were morphometrically compared with those of normal thyroid and lymph nodes. Sixteen cases of MTC cases with adjacent thyroid tissues and attached lymph nodes were immunocytochemically stained for lymphatic vessels using lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and venous vessels for factor VIII (F-8). The immunostained sections of MTC lesions and metastatic lymph nodes were morphometrically compared for the number and sizes of the vessels with those of normal thyroid tissues and lymph nodes. Results: Significantly increased lymphatic vessels and markedly increased blood vessels were identified in many MTC cases at the peritumoral tissues and metastatic lymph nodes whereas a few lymphatic vessels and no venous vessels were identified in midst of MTCs. The irregular peritumoral lymphatic vessels resembled that of immature lymphatic vessels observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas and increased irregularly, entrapped venous vessels in peritumoral tissues resembled those observed in follicular thyroid carcinomas. Conclusion: The significantly increased lymphatic vessels and markedly increased venous vessels in the peritumoral thyroid tissue support a propensity of MTCs for providing an easy access of tumor cells to both lymphatic spread to the regional lymph nodes and venous spread to distant organs with further tumor spread through metastatic lymph nodes by moderately increased lymphatic and venous vessels.
Asset Pricing with Stochastic Habit Formation  [PDF]
Masao Nakagawa
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2012.22018
Abstract: This paper examines optimal consumption/portfolio choices under stochastic habit formation in which it is uncertain how deep consumers would become in the habit of consuming in future. By extending Shroder and Skiadas [1] to stochastic habit formation, the optimization problem with stochastic habit forming preferences is transformed into that with simple time-additive preferences. Optimal portfolios are composed of the tangency portfolio and habit hedging portfolio. Resulting risk premia are characterized by consumption beta, which is proportionate to the covariance with consumption changes, and habit beta, defined by using the covariance with habit.
HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Induces Inflammation through Labile Foxp3 Expression
Nanae Yamamoto-Taguchi,Yorifumi Satou,Paola Miyazato,Koichi Ohshima,Masanori Nakagawa,Koko Katagiri,Tatsuo Kinashi,Masao Matsuoka
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003630
Abstract: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes both a neoplastic disease and inflammatory diseases, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) gene is encoded in the minus strand of the proviral DNA and is constitutively expressed in infected cells and ATL cells. HBZ increases the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells by inducing the Foxp3 gene transcription. Recent studies have revealed that some CD4+Foxp3+ T cells are not terminally differentiated but have a plasticity to convert to other T-cell subsets. Induced Treg (iTreg) cells tend to lose Foxp3 expression, and may acquire an effector phenotype accompanied by the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In this study, we analyzed a pathogenic mechanism of chronic inflammation related with HTLV-1 infection via focusing on HBZ and Foxp3. Infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the skin, lung and intestine of HBZ-Tg mice. As mechanisms, adhesion and migration of HBZ-expressing CD4+ T cells were enhanced in these mice. Foxp3?CD4+ T cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ compared to those from non-Tg mice. Expression of Helios was reduced in Treg cells from HBZ-Tg mice and HAM/TSP patients, indicating that iTreg cells are predominant. Consistent with this finding, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 region of the Foxp3 gene was hypermethylated in Treg cells of HBZ-Tg mice, which is a characteristic of iTreg cells. Furthermore, Treg cells in the spleen of HBZ-transgenic mice tended to lose Foxp3 expression and produced an excessive amount of IFN-γ, while Foxp3 expression was stable in natural Treg cells of the thymus. HBZ enhances the generation of iTreg cells, which likely convert to Foxp3?T cells producing IFN-γ. The HBZ-mediated proinflammatory phenotype of CD4+ T cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammation.
Cyclic Changes of Nerve Fibers in Human Endometrium  [PDF]
Tatsuo Tomita, Kuni Mah
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.42011

Objective: The presence of nerve fibers in human endometrium remains unsettled but recent immunocytochemical studies have shown that there was increased innervation in the endometrium from women with endometriosis and some nerve fibers in the normally cycling human endometrium. In the current study, we used uterine tissue cryosections from normal cycling women, which previously provided better immunocytochemical staining for lymphatic vessels than in paraffin sections. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 cases from normally cycling women were included representing menstrual, early proliferative, early to late secretary phase. Neurofilament and CD 56 were used as immunocytochemical markers for nerve fibers with cryosections. Results: There were consistent presence of nerve fibers in myometrium and basalis. Few small nerve fibers were identified in early proliferative endometrium and more nerve fibers were present in lower-half functionalis from mid-secretary phase. Late-secretary functionalis showed less nerve fibers in the upper-half than the lower-half functionalis, implying growing nerve fibers from lower functionalis to upper functionalis in late-secretary phase. Conclusion: Nerve fibers appeared to cyclically grow from basalis to lower functionalis and then from lower functionalis to upper functionalis concomitantly with blood vessels in normally cycling human endometrium. These cycling endometrial nerve fibers consisted mostly of nonmyelinated small nerve fibers, which may transmit pelvic pain in the normally cycling women.

Cyclic Changes of Lymphatic Vessels in Human Endometrium  [PDF]
Tatsuo Tomita, Kuni Mah
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.41002

Objective: The presence of lymphatic vessels in endometrium has been controversial and recent immunocytochemical studies with routinely paraffin embedded sections revealed lymphatic vessels in basalis and occasionally in functionalis. We aimed to investigate endometrial lymphatic vessels by immunocytochemical staining using cryosections, which provided better and consistent immunostaining for lymphatic vessels with a lymphatic marker, D2-40. We aimed further to explore the structure-function relationship of lymphatic vessels in the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: Sixteen cases of endometrium from menstrual, early-proliferative to latesecretary phase were immunostained for D2-40 and lymphatic vessels were morphometrically analyzed for functionalis, basalis and myometrium, respectively. Results: Lymphatic vessels were consistently most numerous in myometrium, followed by basalis in all phases whereas menstrual endometrium showed small, fragmented aggregates of lymphatic vessels in thin basalis. Earlyto mid-secretary endometrium revealed many lymphatic vessels in basalis and lower-functionalis with few lymphatic vessels in upper-functionalis. Late-secretary endometrium revealed more lymphatic vessels in upper-functionalis with dilated walls, which then burst at the surface of functionalis. Conclusions: These degenerating lymphatic vessels with markedly dilated lumen in upper-functionalis may contribute to lymphatic leakage in late-secretary phase. These immunostained lymphatic vessels in functionalis support proliferating and degenerating lymphatic vessel cycle synchronized with the menstrual cycle of endometrial arteries to maintain adequate fluid leakage.

Cyclic Changes of Lymphatic and Venous Vessels in Human Endometrium  [PDF]
Tatsuo Tomita, Kuni Mah
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.44025
Abstract: Context: Cyclic changes of endometrial arteries are well established but possible cyclic changes of lymphatic and venous vessels have not been fully documented. There are no published morphological reports to support cyclic changes of endometrial lymphatic and venous vessels. Objective: Using cryosections of human endometrium, this study aimed to unveil possible cyclic changes of lymphatic and venous vessels. We previously reported cyclic changes of lymphatic vessels in human endometrium using D2-40. Design: A total of 16 cases representing menstrual, proliferative and mid and late secretary phase were studied. For Immunocytochemical staining, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 and von Willebr and factor were used for lymphatic and venous vessels, respectively. We used polyclonal LYVE-1 in this study, which revealed more lymphatic vessels than using D2-40. Results: Residual lymphatic and venous vessels were present in menstrual basalis. In Day 5 - 9 endometrium, there were sparse lymphatic vessels but were numerous growing venous vessels in thin proliferating functionalis. In Day 14 - 22 endometrium, there were scattered lymphatic vessels and numerous venous vessels in functionalis. In Day 25 - 26 endometrium, there were many dilated lymphatic vessels and numerous dilated, disintegrating venous vessels in upper functionalis than lower functionalis. Conclusion: The above findings support that lymphatic vessels are sparse but venous vessels are numerous in early proliferative functionalis. Lymphatic vessels grow from basalis to thin functionalis. In premenstrual phase, lymphatic vessels proliferate from lower to upper functionalis, and both lymphatic and venous vessels disintegrate for shedding by this immunocytochemical study using lymphatic and venous markers. Thus, all lymphatic, venous and arterial vessels undergo menstrual cyclic changes and shed for menstruation.
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