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Effect of Growth Stage-Based Irrigation Schedules on Biomass Accumulation and Resource Use Efficiency of Wheat Cultivars  [PDF]
Muhammad Mubeen, Ashfaq Ahmad, Tasneem Khaliq, Syeda Refat Sultana, Shahid Hussain, Amjed Ali, Hakoomat Ali, Wajid Nasim
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47175

Climate and weather conditions greatly affect the performance of new wheat cultivars for yield and resource use efficiency. In order to know the effect of irrigation schedules based on growth stage (the most vital criterion in the region) on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of wheat cultivars in Faisalabad conditions, a study was planned at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2009-2010. Split plot design with irrigation levels in main plots and cultivars in sub-plots was implied. Irrigation levels were: IT = irrigation at tillering stage, ITS = irrigation at tillering and stem elongation stage, ISB = irrigation at stem elongation and booting stage and ITSBG = irrigation at tillering, stem elongation, booting and grain filling stage. Cultivars selected were: Faisalabad-2008, Lasani-2008, Miraj-2008, Shafaq-2006 and Chakwal-97. Irrigation treatment ITSBG gave higher grain yield (4.23 t·ha-1) followed by ISB (3.60 t·ha-1), however ITSBG was statistically similar to ISB in radiation use efficiency (RUE) for grain yield (RUEGY). Similarly the two treatments were statistically at par in maximum leaf area index, total dry matter (TDM) accumulation, cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and RUETDM. Hence where less numbers of irrigations are available, irrigation at stem elongation and booting stage is suitable for achieving economic yield. Lasani-2008 produced maximum grain yield (4.37 t·ha-

OILCROP-SUN Model Relevance for Evaluation of Nitrogen Management of Sunflower Hybrids in Sargodha, Punjab  [PDF]
Ashfaq Ahmad, Amjed Ali, Tasneem Khaliq, Syed Aftab Wajid, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Ibrahim, Hafiz Muhammad Rashad Javeed, Gerrit Hoogenboom
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49212

The experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of crop system (DSSAT) OILCROP-SUN model simulating growth & development and achene yield of sunflower hybrids in response to nitrogen under irrigated conditions in semi arid environment, Sargodha, Punjab. The model was evaluated with observed data collected in trials which were conducted during spring season in 2010 and 2011 in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Split plot design was used in layout of experiment with three replications. The hybrids (Hysun-33 & S-278) and N levels (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1) were allotted in main and sub plots, respectively. The OILCROP-SUN model showed that the model was able to simulate growth and yield of sunflower with an average of 10.44 error% between observed and simulated achene yield (AY). The results of simulation analysis indicated that nitrogen rate of 150 kg.N.ha-1 (N3) produced the highest yield as compared to other treatments. Furthermore, the economic analysis through mean Gini Dominance also showed the dominance of this treatment compared to other treatment combinations. Thus management strategy consisting

Influence of seed size and ecological factors on the germination and emergence of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) Influência do tamanho da semente e fatores ecológicos na germina o e na emergência de Convolvulus arvensis
A Tanveer,M Tasneem,A Khaliq,M.M Javaid
Planta Daninha , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/s0100-83582013000100005
Abstract: An understanding of seed germination ecology of weeds can assist in predicting their potential distribution and developing effective management strategies. Influence of environmental factors and seed size on germination and seedling emergence of Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) was studied in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Germination occurred over a wide range of constant temperatures, between 15 and 40 oC, with optimum germination between 20 and 25 oC. Time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time increased while germination percentage and germination index decreased with an increase in temperature from 20 oC, salinity and osmotic stress. However, germination was tolerant to low salt (25 mM) or osmotic stress (0.2 MPa), but as salinity and osmotic stress increased, germination percentage and germination index decreased. Seeds of C. arvensis placed at soil surface showed maximum emergence and decreased as seeding depth increased. Seeds of C. arvensis germinated over a wide range of pH (4 to 9) but optimum germination occurred at pH 6 to 8. Under highly alkaline and acidic pH, time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time increased while germination percentage and germination index decreased. Increase in field capacity caused decreased time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time but increased germination percentage and germination index. Bigger seeds had low time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time but high germination percentage and germination index. Smaller seeds were more sensitive to environmental factors as compared to larger or medium seeds. It can be concluded that except for pH, all environmental factors and seed sizes adversely affect C. arvensis as regards seed germination or emergence and germination or emergence traits, and larger seeds result in improved stand establishment and faster germination than small seeds, regardless of moisture stress or deeper seeding depth. O entendimento sobre a ecologia de germina o de sementes de plantas daninhas pode ajudar a prever sua distribui o e a desenvolver estratégias eficazes de manejo. Fatores ambientais e tamanho da semente de Convolvulus arvensis foram estudados em laboratório e em casa de vegeta o. A germina o ocorreu através de uma ampla gama de temperatura constante, de 15 a 40 oC, com a germina o ótima entre 20 e 25 oC. O tempo para iniciar a germina o e o tempo médio de germina o foram aumentados, enquanto a porcentagem e o índice de germina o
Effect of Nitrogen on Yield and Oil Quality of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Hybrids under Sub Humid Conditions of Pakistan  [PDF]
Wajid Nasim, Ashfaq Ahmad, Asghari Bano, Rabiu Olatinwo, Muhammad Usman, Tasneem Khaliq, Aftab Wajid, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Mubeen, Muzzammil Hussain
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32029
Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has emerged as an economically important crop in Pakistan due to its significant share in vegetable oil production. The plant metabolic processes require protein to increase the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available for plant use. A two-year field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009. The objective was to determine the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N1 = 0 kg·ha–1, N2 = 60 kg·ha–1, N3 = 120 kg·ha–1, N4 = 180 kg·ha–1 and N5 = 240 kg·ha–1) on three sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Hysun-38 and Poineer-64A93) in agro-climatic conditions of Gujranwala, a sub-humid region in the centre of the Punjab province of Pakistan. A randomized complete block design split plot experiment was set-up with cultivars in the main plots and N levels in the subplots. Results showed that Hysun-38 gave maximum TDM (15815 kg·ha–1) and maximum grain yield (3389 kg·ha–1), while minimum TDM (14640 kg·ha–1) and grain yield (3125 kg·ha–1) was observed in Hysun-33. Among different N rates evaluated, N4 gave maximum TDM (17890 kg·ha–1) and grain yield (3809 kg·ha–1) compared to the other N rates. The maximum oil content (46.2%) was observed in Hysun-38 without application of N fertilizer (N1), while the minimum oil content (40.6%) was observed from N5 treatment. In conclusion, the application of 180 kg·ha–1 N to Hysun-38 provided the best combination for good yield in sunflower crop under the prevailing sub-humid conditions of Pakistan.
Performance Study of a Distributed Web Server: An Analytical Approach  [PDF]
Sarah Tasneem, Reda Ammar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.511099
Abstract: With the rapid expansion of the Internet, Web servers have played a major role in accessing the enormous mass of Web pages to find the information needed by the user. Despite the exponential growth of the WWW, a very negligible amount of research has been conducted in Web server performance analysis with a view to improve the time a Web server takes to connect, receive, and analyze a request sent by the client and then sending the answer back to client. In this paper, we propose a multi-layer analytical approach to study the web server performance. A simple client-server model is used to represent the WWW server in order to demonstrate how to apply the proposed approach. We developed a systematic, analytical methodology to quantify the communication delay and queuing overhead in a distributed web server system. The approach uses the Computation Structure Model to derive server processing time required to process a request sent from a client and queueing model to analyze the communication between the clients and the server.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To detect and manage Pre-cancerouscervical change in order to prevent invasive cancer in a symptomatic sexually active women ofreproductive age group. Study design: An observational study. Place and duration of study: Study wasconducted in Gynae unit 11 of Bolan Medical College Complex Quetta from June 2002 to May2004.Patients and Methods: 370 women visiting either Gynae OPD or antenatal clinic were includedin study. Positive smears were followed by biopsy and histopathology. Results: 198(53.51%) smears werereported to be normal, 126(34%) inflammatory, 20(5.40%) borderline, mild dyskaryosis was seen in6(1.62%) moderate in 5(1.35%) and severe dyskaryosis in 3(0.81%). 14 smears were considered inadequatebecause of blood stained specimen or due to other artifacts. Patients with mild dyskaryosis were advisedto come for follow up and to repeat smear after three months.8(2.16%) patients with moderate to severedyskaryosis had punch biopsy. Histopathology revealed CIN-II in four cases of moderate dyskaryosisand CIN-III in one case of severe dyskaryosis. Two patients with moderate dyskaryosis were managedby local destructive procedure with electrocautry. While two patients with CIN-II and three patientswith severe dyskaryosis had total abdominal hysterectomy due to continuous pain lower abdominal andexcessive vaginal discharge. Conclusion: Cervical cancer screening by pap smear is a simple and effectivemethod of detecting pre malignant lesions. If it is done routinely in asymptomatic patients at regularintervals, it may help to decrease the incidence of the invasive cancer.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: To find out the possible association between levels of cholesterol and tea consumptionin the general population known to consume large amount of tea in a day. Place and Duration: The study wasconducted in the periphery areas of Multan district from 1990 to 1993. Materials and Methods: The data was obtainedon 550 (300 (20-40 years) male subjects and 250 older age group (41-65 years) male subjects. Information collectedon each subject included detailed demographic data, personal habits including smoking, frequency of participation inleisure time, physical activity, a detailed history of daily tea intake and weekly egg consumption. They were alsoquestioned about medication and special dietary intake (such a low salt, low cholesterol, low saturated fat or weightreducing diets).Height and weight were measured. Relative weight was defined by Quetelet index (weight in g) / (heightin cm2). Blood samples, obtained by venepuncture, were drawn in vacuum tubes without additive, with the subjectsupine and after fasting for between 9 and 10h. Serum was separated from the whole blood within 2h of being drawn.Sera separated from the whole blood were frozen at -70oC until analyzed. Total cholesterol (TC) was estimated byenzymes assay (Boehringer Knoll kit, Mannheim, FRG). HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) was measured after precipitation withheparin and manganese chloride.. Triglycerides were estimated by enzyme assay (Boehringer Knoll kit, Mannheim,FRG). Serum low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated. Quality control methods were employedthroughout all the analyses. The data presented here are for the those subjects who were not an any special diet,medication or suffering from any endocrine disease. The association between tea intake and other dietary variableswere tested using the Chi square test. An analysis of covariance was used to examine the association between teaintake and lipid levels. Separate analyses of covariance were carried out in each of two age groups 20-40 years and41-65 years. Results: A negative association between drinking of tea and TC levels were found in both age groupsstudied. The difference was found to be entirely due to a difference in LDL-cholesterol levels. The negative associationbetween tea consumption and TC levels was significant in heavy drinkers of tea with or without smoking. Conclusion:General population is known to consume large amounts of tea. It was concluded that tea consumption may be anindependent factor influencing serum lipid levels because there was a negative association between tea consumptionand serum
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate incidence, morbidity andmortality associated with Eclampsia. Design: Prospective study of 98 cases of eclampsia. Setting: departmentof obstetrics and gynaecology unit II Bolan Medical Collage Complex Quetta. Patients: 98 cases were admittedwith eclampsia during two years and six months period from 1st June 2001 to December 2003. Results: Totalno of admissions were 6952. 98 patients presented with eclampsia making a frequency of 1.40%. Of these 98cases of eclampsia 58 % were primigravidas, mean age of eclamptic patients was 34 years. Gestational age atadmission was less than 35 weeks in 80(78.4%) cases. 54(55%) patients had intrapartum eclampsia.64 (66.7%)patients received diazepam and rest received Magnesium sulphate as anticonvulsant. Caesarean section was donein 10 (11.49%) cases rest delivered vaginally. Fetal loss was seen in 72(82.75%) patients, while 7(7.14%) mothersdied of eclampsia. Conclusion: Maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is very high in eclempticpatients. Magnesium sulphate is good anticonvulsant, helpful in reducing maternal morbidity and mortalityconsiderably. Good antenatal practices, maternal education and awareness, provision of better health facilitiesand their utilization will definitely improve maternal and fetal outcome.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: Lipids are common conjugates of serum lipoproteins while sialic acid is present in combination with lipids andproteins as glycolipids and glycoproteins respectively. This study was aimed to get some preliminary information regarding the possiblecorrelation between serum sialic acid and lipid profile in cardiac patients to investigate the possibility of using these parameters to aid thediagnosis and prognosis. Material and methods: Normal subjects (15) and Cardiac patients (42) were estimated. Total cholesterol , Totallipid, Triglycerides , HDL-C and Serum Sialic acid was measured. Duration and place :One year (Jan-Dec. 2005) at POF Hospital ,Wah Cantt.Results: Total lipids 523.4 ± 136.2 mg/dl, Total Cholesterol 142.7 ± 43.3 mg/dl, Triglyceride 81.5 ± 51.6 mg/dl, HDL-C 25.51 ± 10.3 mg/dl andSialic acid was estimated to be 150.8 ± 41.1 mg/dl in normal subjects, while in cardiac patients (n = 42) the level of total lipid was 747.5 ± 247.8mg/dl, total cholesterol 174.0 ± 43.4 mg/dl, triglyceride 154.5 ± 147.8 mg/dl and HDL-cholesterol was 18.1 ± 10.6 mg/dl while Sialic acid wasestimated to be 216.1 ± 57.0 mg/dl in cardiac patients. Conclusion: Results indicate that all the parameters i.e. total lipid, cholesterol,triglyceride and sialic acid except HDL-cholesterol, studied were significantly higher in cardiac patients (P < 0.01) while HDL-cholesterol wassignificantly lower in these patients (P < 0.01).One possible explanation to this could be the dietary habits of the people of this area who preferto consume vegetable oils which are considered to be rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than a lower intake of fat rich diet. In additionto this, these people consume substantially large quantities of garlic and onions which again are considered to generate hypocholesterolemiceffects.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Platelets have been implicated in the genesis of vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. This is shown by platelethyperaggregability in diabetic subjects. We studied the platelet aggregation pattern in 200 diabetic subjects. 100 withdiabetic retinopathy and 100 without retinopathy. Platelet aggregation was found to be enhanced in all 200 subjectsstudied. ADP, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonic acid were used as agonists to induce platelet aggregation. The resultswere compared with 50 healthy age, sex matched non diabetic controls. We did not find any significant difference betweenthe platelet aggregation of diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy.
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