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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 822 matches for " Targeted Sensitization "
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Targeted Sensitization as a Strategy to Reducing Loan Default in Microfinance Bank Operations in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Shuaib Jalaludeen, Ferdinand Che, Fatima Jalal-Eddeen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104275
Background: In Nigeria and other developing countries, the main reason for poverty and uneven income and wealth distribution is low economic growth performance and low labor returns amongst others. The growing gap between the rich and the poor in the developing countries is alarming hence the need for government and policy makers to focus more toward ensuring a fair distribution of wealth among its populace. Although progress has been made toward poverty reduction in Nigeria, still more needs to be done to narrow this unacceptable gap so as to achieve the needed economic and social growth for society to thrive. In an attempt to address this gap, the central bank of Nigeria came up with the microfinance policy in 2004 and the sole purpose was to give micro, small and medium enterprises access to informal financial services to boost their capacity towards economic growth and development. However, the biggest threat to operations of the microfinance institutions is loan default, a situation where the clients do not fulfill payment of their credit facilities when due. Methods: This mixed method cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to collect responses from eligible persons. The participants in the survey are clients from three randomly selected microfinance institutions in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. The collated data were analyzed using SPSS version 24 and simple Microsoft Excel to look at reasons for defaulting loan repayment and whether targeted sensitization has any significant role in reducing loan default rates. Results: Out of the 150 (100%) questionnaires distributed, 70 (46.7%) were returned and used for the analysis. Reasons for default in repayments revealed short repayment period (40%), multiple loans (11.43%), high-interest rates (2.86%), family obligations (20%) and poor business turnover (25.71). Of the 52.86 percent of the respondents who claim they were contacted by their respective microfinance institutions for sensitization programs, 94.74 percent found the sensitization program helpful. Conclusion: This study has underscored the importance of targeted sensitization as an important strategy in reducing loan defaults in microfinance operations. Similarly, there is the need for further studies to look at the impact of multiple borrowing on loan repayment by the clients.
A Common Database for Clients and Its Effect on Loan Default in Microfinance Bank Operations: An Outlook of Microfinance Banks in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Shuaib Jalal-Eddeen, Muawiya Saleh, Fadimatu Jalal-Eddeen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105913
Background: In their quest to address poverty and uneven income and wealth distribution often attributed to low economic growth performance and low labour returns amongst others, the governments of the developing countries through their respective central banks came up with the micro-finance policies. In Nigeria, the central bank came up with a policy in 2004, which aims to give micro, small and medium enterprises access to informal financial services to boost their capacity towards economic growth and development. While this policy has reduced the level of poverty among the low-income populace, the operations of the microfinance institutions are receiving increasing threats from the beneficiaries, especially loan default, which is often as a result to multiple borrowing. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a mixed method approach was adopted for the study. The questionnaires were distributed to eligible persons and the responses an-alysed using SPSS version 24 and a simple Microsoft Excel. The respondents were clients from three randomly selected microfinance institutions in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Results: The outcome of this study has shown that while about 66% multiple borrowing incidences from various microfinance institutions were very high, 91.43% and 77.14% of the respondents believed that multiple borrowing and loan default, respectively, could be prevented through the use of a common database. Conclusion: It is recommended that microfinance banks and institutions should invest in implementing a common database for managing client requirements and minimizing concurrent borrowing and loan defaults.
Strategies of Awareness of the Retirement in Employees of a Mexican Company  [PDF]
Aguilera Velasco María de los Angeles, María de Lourdes Marrero Santos, Martín Acosta Fernández, Teresa Margarita Torres López
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.66012
Abstract: An intervention study was made with an initial self-evaluation and a summative evaluation for the purpose of fostering awareness of the retirement process in employees nearing retirement at a Mexican waterworks company. Sensitization strategies consisted of giving two successive interactive conferences. Data were gathered using the SQA-E metacognitive format with two open questions and during the plenary sessions. The 92 employees over 55 years old who participated were divided into five groups. Each group received the same information presented in a completely similar manner. A thematic analysis was made of the data to gather information about prior and subsequent knowledge and expectations. Employees successfully learned about the historical and politico-economic situation of retirement, devised their own definition of retirement and learned about the need to plan and become prepared. They wanted to stay active, improve their health and quality of life, strengthen their social networks, participate socially and manage their income. They decided they would retire voluntarily, they would have an economic plan, would establish a positive attitude and peace of mind, would try to be happy and enjoy retirement to the fullest and prepare for old age by learning to live alone. A link between the university and the company was forged. We suggest continuing to promote preparation with two sensitization conferences because they help employees to become aware of retirement, to want to plan for it and to stay active, to involve family members and colleagues, and to use the comprehensive evaluation of large groups.
Educational Preparation of Older Adults and Their Families for Retirement  [PDF]
María de los ángeles Aguilera, José de Jesús Pérez, Diemen Delgado, Mónica Contreras, Martín Acosta, Blanca Elizabeth Pozos
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.36032

The purpose of this qualitative case study, carried out in two phases, is to systematize the learning experiences and expectations of older adults and their families as they face approaching retirement, in Guadalajara, Mexico, 2012. The strategy implemented was an educational preparation for retirement. Six adults had already retired, two were soon to be retired and eight family members were chosen for this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a SQA-E format. The educational strategy was an interactive conference. A phenomenological analysis was made of the experiences recorded. The naturalistic criterial evaluation of learning experiences and expectations was applied before and after the educational intervention. Through this intervention, participants were made conscious of their problems, expressed the desire to improve certain aspects of their lives and continued educational preparation.

Amphetamine Alters the Circadian Locomotor Activity Pattern of Adult WKY Female Rats  [PDF]
Cathleen G. Jones, Pamela B. Yang, Victor T. Wilcox, Nachum Dafny
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.45022
Abstract: There are no reports on the effect of amphetamine on female WKY circadian activity pattern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether repeated daily exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine alters the locomotor circadian rhythm activity patterns of female adult Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12 h light/dark cycle in an open field cage. After 5 to 7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop recordings began. On experimental day 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On experimental days 2 to 7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine and the control group with saline followed by a washout phase from experimental day 8 to 10, and amphetamine re-challenge or saline on experimental day 11 similar to experimental day 2. Locomotor movements were determined using a computerized animal activity monitoring system, and cosine statistical analysis was used to fit a24-hour curve to the activity pattern. The horizontal activity (HA), total distance (TD), number of stereotypy (NOS), and stereotypical movements (SM) were analyzed for alterations in the circadian rhythm activity patterns. The data demonstrated that chronic amphetamine administration alters the mesor parameter of the circadian rhythm activity patterns, indicating that chronic amphetamine treatment exerts long term effects on these rats.
Ritalin Use Modifies Alcohol Effects in Rats  [PDF]
Blake R. Sonne, Nachum Dafny
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.410044
Abstract: Methylphenidate (MPD), known as Ritalin, is a common drug prescribed for those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).There are reports that many MPD users consume alcohol, resulting in toxic effects and hospitalization. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol in rats concomitant with acute and repetitive MPD exposure. Rats were divided into four groups, control (saline), 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD groups and lasted for 12 consecutive days. Ethanol was given after repeated MPD administration as follows. On experimental day 1 (ED 1), all animals were treated with saline to establish baseline, on ED 2 through ED 7 either saline or MPD (0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg) was given. On ED 11, after three days without treatment (ED 8 - 10), rats were treated as they were on ED 2 - 7. At ED 12, 1 g/kg ethanol was administered, and one hour of locomotor activity was recorded after alcohol administration, using the open field assay. The data show a dose response characteristic of increased locomotor activity with increasing doses of MPD. Ethanol administration alone depresses locomotor activity. The depressive effect of alcohol was significantly attenuated in animals treated with MPD, in a dose dependent manner. The higher dose of MPD previously administered resulted in a larger attenuation of the ethanol’s suppressive effect. These trends demonstrate that chronic MPD exposure directly influences the effects of alcohol in rats. Under these circumstances, it is reasonable to assume that a subject will need to consume an increased amount of ethanol in order to attain the ethanol effect desired. This discrepancy between effects and exposure may be a liability for ethanol toxicity.
Prevalence of Peanut Allergy in Offspring of Peanut Farmers  [PDF]
Amanda Jagdis, Gary Liss, Soheila Maleki, Peter Vadas
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.61004
Abstract: Introduction: While exposure to environmental peanut during infancy appears to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route, early and frequent peanut ingestion during infancy may prevent peanut allergy through oral tolerance. Due to parental occupation, the offspring of peanut farmers are likely exposed to peanut protein in their environment, but they may also have early introduction into their diet due to ready access. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of peanut allergy in offspring of peanut farmers. Methods: A survey was mailed by the National Peanut Board to peanut farmers in the United States collecting information on peanut consumption, peanut reactions, physician-confirmed peanut allergy (PA), epinephrine auto-injector prescription and history of other allergies in offspring. Egg allergy (EA) served as a comparator to peanut allergy. Results: Of 10,349 households surveyed, 1050 responses were received (2493 offspring, participation rate 10%). The self-reported prevalence of peanut allergy in the general population in the USA is 0.9%, 1.3%, and 0.7% for children 0 - 5 years, 6 - 10 years, and 11 - 17 years, respectively. In offspring of peanut farmers, PA vs EA was reported in 3.69% (10/271) vs 2.6% (7/271), 2.8% (14/493) vs 2.0% (10/493), and 1.48% (37/2493) vs 1.4% (35/2493) of offspring ≤10 years, offspring ≤15 years and all offspring, respectively. Physician-confirmed PA was reported in 3.3% (9/271), 2.6% (13/493), and 1.24% (31/2493) in the three groups, respectively. Physician-confirmed PA with epinephrine auto-injector prescription was reported in1.8% (5/271), 1.8% (9/493), and 0.68% (17/2493) in the three groups, respectively. Conclusions: We found that the self-reported prevalence of peanut allergy in offspring of peanut farmers was similar to that reported in the general population. This is a unique population that may provide insight into factors that influence development of peanut allergy.
Maternal Response of Perinatally Underfed Wistar Virgin Females Exposed to Newborn Rats  [PDF]
Manuel Salas, Mirelta Regalado, Carmen Torrero, Minerva Ortiz-Valladares, Lorena Rubio
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93007
Abstract: Nutrition plays a major role in the survival of the progeny, and its perinatal deficiencies delay physical development and interfere with social and cognitive performance later in life. The effects of early undernutrition on maternal social performance of sensitized adult virgin rats were evaluated. Several maternal and non-maternal responses were measured in virgin female Wistar rats randomly divided into two groups, control and early undernourished, during 19 days of chronic daily exposure to fresh foster pups in home-cage conditions. Underfed females (F0) received different percentages of a balanced diet during gestation. After birth, pups were underfed (F1) by alternating every 12 h between litters two lactating dams, one with ligated nipples. Weaning was at 25 days of age followed by an ad lib diet until postpartum day 90, when sensitized virgins were maternally tested daily for seven successive sessions. Significantly (p < 0.05) low body weight scores in UG F1 virgins of five different ages were observed. The UG F1 females expressed significantly (p < 0.05) lower frequency values in sniffing, licking, retrieving, crouching, and handling shavings, with clear prolonged sniffing, retrieving and handling shaving latencies towards the foster pups compared with CG F1 sensitized females. Self-grooming was not affected, whereas exploration was significantly reduced. Current findings suggest that perinatal undernutrition interfered the organization of a core neuronal circuitry underlying the mother-litter interactions involved in social and cognitive performance of sensitized adult virgins. Furthermore, the behavioral maternal alterations in F1 virgins may possibly generate a risky negative social environment to induce cognitive and/or brain disorders in later generations.
Advanced Lung Cancer—Reaching a Survival Ceiling with Chemotherapy, the Nibs, and the Mabs  [PDF]
Riccardo Lencioni, James Chen, Gordon Downie, Llew Keltner
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22018
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite intensive research conducted during the past years, little improvement in overall survival has been achieved for patients with advanced disease. Chemotherapy and radiation continue to be the mainstays of treatment for unresectable patients, and targeted agents seem to have added little improvement to overall survival while dramatically increasing costs and producing significant clinical side effects. In contrast to the immunosuppression which occurs as a result of the use of chemotherapy and pathway blockers, novel therapies are emerging which either stimulate tumor specific immune responses due to apoptotic focal tumor destruction or attack tumor-induced regulatory T-cell immunosuppression. Such new approaches should be fully explored, as they have potential to offer very different outcomes for advanced lung cancer patients.
Dor: aspectos atuais da sensibiliza??o periférica e central
Rocha, Anita Perpétua Carvalho;Kraychete, Durval Campos;Lemonica, Lino;Carvalho, Lídia Raquel de;Barros, Guilherme Ant?nio Moreira de;Garcia, Jo?o Batista dos Santos;Sakata, Rioko Kimiko;
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-70942007000100011
Abstract: background and objectives: current research has focused on the biochemical and structural plasticity of the nervous system secondary to tissue injury. the mechanisms involved in the transition from acute to chronic pain are complex and involve the interaction of receptor systems and the flow of intracellular ions, second messenger systems, and new synaptic connections. the aim of this article was to discuss the new mechanisms concerning peripheral and central sensitization. contents: tissue injury increases the response of nociceptors, known as sensitization or facilitation. these phenomena begin after the local release of inflammatory mediators and the activation of the cells of the immune system or specific receptors in the peripheral and central nervous system. conclusions: tissue and neuronal lesions result in sensitization of the nociceptors and facilitation of the central and peripheral nervous conduction.
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