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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 334311 matches for " Tara C. B. Moore "
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Near Visual Acuity Following Hyperopic Photorefractive Keratectomy in a Presbyopic Age Group
Michael Moore,Antonio Leccisotti,Claire Grills,Tara C. B. Moore
ISRN Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/310474
Abstract:
A Comparison of the Clinical and Molecular Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Keratitis  [PDF]
Victoria E. McGilligan, Jonathan E. Moore, Mohammad Tallouzi, Sarah D. Atkinson, Hugh O’Neill, Susan Feeney, Elena S. Novitskaya, Anant Sharma, Sunil Shah, Jonathan A. Jackson, David G. Frazer, Tara C. B. Moore
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2014.43011
Abstract:

Purpose: To compare the clinical and molecular diagnoses of Herpes Simplex Keratitis (HSK). Materials and Methods: Conjunctival swabs (after fluorescein and anaesthetic wash out) and detailed questionnaire data were obtained from 146 participants. Corneal rims and conjunctival epithelial cells were infected with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 or HSV2 and supernatant collected. HSV1; HSV2; Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and Adenovirus (ADV) DNA was assessed using two real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. Results: Of the 146 participants recruited, 54 were clinically diagnosed with typical epithelial lesions and 38 with atypical epithelial lesions, 17 with old inactive HSK and 37 healthy volunteers. HSV1 DNA was detected in 28 (30%) of the 92 participants with clinically suspect HSK. Patients who presented with typical epithelial lesions had a higher positive rate (46%) than those who presented with atypical type lesions (8%), when using primers against the Glycoprotein (Gp) G region of the virus. When the same samples were retested with primers against the GpB region, the positive rate for the typical and atypical cases increased to 52% and 11% respectively. Antiviral use at the time of sampling reduced the rate of PCR positivity by 20% (p < 0.05). ADV DNA was detected in 6% of the typical cases and 8% of the atypical cases. All control participants with no history of HSK were negative for HSV1 DNA. Sample quantity was confirmed by testing for housekeeping control genes, beta-actin and beta-2 macroglobulin. PCR results from in vitro control investigations of HSV1 and 2 infected corneal rims and conjunctival epithelial cells were 100% positive for infected and 100% negative for uninfected samples when assessed using both PCR methods. Conclusions: Clinical diagnosis of typical HSK is not always confirmed by PCR. Concomitant use of an antiviral reduces levels of PCR positivity. Given this and the findings that other ocular surface pathogens may mimic HSK pathology, and that choice of gene amplification region can also affect accurate detection of HSV1 by PCR, we propose the use of a multiplex assay. This would perform PCR using primers spanning a number of different regions within one gene and would also target a number of different viral genes to ensure potentially different HSV1 viral strains or other viruses do not affect

Staphylococcus aureus Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cells
Victoria E. McGilligan, Meredith S. Gregory-Ksander, Dayu Li, Jonathan E. Moore, Robin R. Hodges, Michael S. Gilmore, Tara C. B. Moore, Darlene A. Dartt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074010
Abstract: The conjunctiva is a moist mucosal membrane that is constantly exposed to an array of potential pathogens and triggers of inflammation. The NACHT, leucine rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) is a Nod-like receptor that can sense pathogens or other triggers, and is highly expressed in wet mucosal membranes. NLRP3 is a member of the multi-protein complex termed the NLRP3 inflammasome that activates the caspase 1 pathway, inducing the secretion of biologically active IL-1β, a major initiator and promoter of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether NLRP3 is expressed in the conjunctiva and (2) determine whether goblet cells specifically contribute to innate mediated inflammation via secretion of IL-1β. We report that the receptors known to be involved in the priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the purinergic receptors P2X4 and P2X7 and the bacterial Toll-like receptor 2 are present and functional in conjunctival goblet cells. Toxin-containing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, increased the expression of the inflammasome proteins NLRP3, ASC and pro- and mature caspase 1 in conjunctival goblet cells. The biologically active form of IL-1β was detected in goblet cell culture supernatants in response to S. aureus, which was reduced when the cells were treated with the caspase 1 inhibitor Z-YVAD. We conclude that the NLRP3 inflammasome components are present in conjunctival goblet cells. The NRLP3 inflammasome appears to be activated in conjunctival goblet cells by toxin-containing S. aureus via the caspase 1 pathway to secrete mature IL1-β. Thus goblet cells contribute to the innate immune response in the conjunctiva by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Development of Allele-Specific Therapeutic siRNA in Meesmann Epithelial Corneal Dystrophy
Haihui Liao,Alan D. Irvine,Caroline J. MacEwen,Kathryn H. Weed,Louise Porter,Laura D. Corden,A. Bethany Gibson,Jonathan E. Moore,Frances J. D. Smith,W. H. Irwin McLean,C. B. Tara Moore
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028582
Abstract: Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) is an inherited eye disorder caused by dominant-negative mutations in either keratins K3 or K12, leading to mechanical fragility of the anterior corneal epithelium, the outermost covering of the eye. Typically, patients suffer from lifelong irritation of the eye and/or photophobia but rarely lose visual acuity; however, some individuals are severely affected, with corneal scarring requiring transplant surgery. At present no treatment exists which addresses the underlying pathology of corneal dystrophy. The aim of this study was to design and assess the efficacy and potency of an allele-specific siRNA approach as a future treatment for MECD.
Household Poverty Dimensions Influencing Forest Dependence at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda: An Application of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework  [PDF]
Ian E. Munanura, Kenneth F. Backman, DeWayne D. Moore, Jeffrey C. Hallo, Robert B. Powell
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.516087
Abstract: This paper explores the perceived relationship between household poverty and forest dependence among the poorest residents neighboring Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework, this paper examines the influence of household poverty on forest dependence. The findings reveal that food and health security risks are primary drivers of forest dependence. Education security risks however, were found to have an indirect influence. Both food and health security risks were found to have equal influence on forest dependence. The economic security risks traditionally believed to significantly influence forest dependence were not found to have a direct influence.
Corner Store and Commuting Patterns of Low-Income, Urban Elementary School Students  [PDF]
Stephanie S. Vander Veur, Sandy B. Sherman, Michelle R. Lent, Tara A. McCoy, Alexis C. Wojtanowski, Brianna A. Sandoval, Allison Karpyn, Gary D. Foster
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14018
Abstract: Background: While there has been considerable focus on the school environment in the context of childhood obesity, less is known about the environments around the school, particularly in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess students’ corner store and commuting habits before and after school in a low-income, urban environment. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: Participants were 702 4th - 6th graders from 10 K-8 public schools where 82.1% ± 7.4% of children qualified for free or reduce-priced meals. Methods: Participants were surveyed about their corner store and commuting habits using a questionnaire. Body mass index was assessed using measured weight and height, and student’s demographic information was self-reported. Results: The majority of 4th - 6th grade urban students shopped in corners stores either in the morning (57.4%) or in the afternoon (58.5%). Nearly half (44.8%) reported shopping and purchasing in both the morning and the afternoon. Children reported spending approximately $2.00 per corner store visit. Approximately two-thirds of children reported that they walked to or from school. Children who walked to school frequented corner stores more than those using other commuting methods. Relative weight status was not related to corner store or commuting patterns. Conclusion: Many low-income children purchase food at corner stores before and/or after school making corner stores an important target for public health nutrition. While many children walk to school, those are more likely to frequent corner stores. Neither corner store nor commuting pattern was associated with relative weight.
Multifrequncy Radio Observations of the Gravitational Lens System MG0414+0534
C. A. Katz,C. B. Moore,J. N. Hewitt
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/303575
Abstract: The four-image gravitational lens system MG0414+0534 was observed with the VLA at 1.4, 5, 8, 15, and 22 GHz. The 15 and 22 GHz images reveal structure in the components which is consistent with that seen at other wavelengths. There was no detection of other extended emission, nor were there detections of the lensing galaxy or the "component x" seen in optical images. Detections of polarized emission show that the fractional polarized intensity is <~ 1%. The observed properties of MG0414 suggest that it is a GHz-peaked spectrum source.
Regional estimates of glacier mass change from MODIS-derived equilibrium line altitudes
J. M. Shea,B. Menounos,R. Dan Moore,C. Tennant
The Cryosphere Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/tcd-6-3757-2012
Abstract: We describe an automated method to extract regional snowline elevations and annual equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) from daily MODIS imagery (MOD02QKM) on large glaciers and icefields in western North America. Regional MODIS-derived ELAs correlate significantly with observed net mass balance at six index glacier mass balance sites. Historical mass balance gradients were combined with MODIS-derived ELAs to estimate annual mass change at the Columbia, Lillooet, and Sittakanay icefields in British Columbia, Canada. Our approach yields estimates of mass change that are within 30% of traditional geodetic approaches over decadal time-scales, and reveals continued mass loss of glaciers in western North America. Between 2000 and 2009, mean annual rates of surface elevation change for the Columbia, Lillooet, and Sittakanay icefields are estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.15 m a 1, 0.57 ± 0.10 m a 1, and 0.90 ± 0.09 m a 1, respectively. This study provides a complementary approach to the development of regional estimates of glacier mass change, which are critical for studies of glacier contributions to both streamflow and global sea-level rise.
Temperature and sunlight controls of mercury oxidation and deposition atop the Greenland ice sheet
S. Brooks,C. Moore,D. Lew,B. Lefer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-8295-2011
Abstract: We conducted the first ever mercury speciation measurements atop the Greenland ice sheet at Summit Station (Latitude 72.6° N, Longitude 38.5° W, Altitude 3200 m) in the Spring and Summer of 2007 and 2008. These measurements were part of the collaborative Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx experiment (GSHOX) campaigns investigating the importance of halogen chemistry in this remote environment. Significant levels of BrO (1–5 pptv) in the near surface air were often accompanied by diurnal dips in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and in-situ production of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM). While halogen (i.e. Br) chemistry is normally associated with marine boundary layers, at Summit, Greenland, far from any marine source, we have conclusively detected bromine and mercury chemistry in the near surface air. The likely fate of the formed mercury-bromine radical (HgBr) is further oxidation to stable RGM (HgBr2, HgBrOH, HgBrCl...), or thermal decomposition. These fates appear to be controlled by the availability of Br, OH, Cl, etc. to produce RGM (Hg(II)), versus the lifetime of HgBr by thermal dissociation. At Summit, the production of RGM appears to require a sun elevation angle of >5 degrees, and an air temperature of < 15 °C. Possibly the availability of Br, controlled by photolysis J(Br2), requires a sun angle >5 degrees, while the formation of RGM from HgBr requires a temperature < 15 °C . A portion of the deposited RGM is readily photoreduced and re-emitted to the air as GEM. However, a very small fraction becomes buried at depth. Extrapolating core samples from Summit to the entire Greenland ice sheet, we calculate an estimated net annual sequestration of ~13 metric tons Hg per year, buried long-term under the sunlit photoreduction zone.
Frequency of Vital Signs Monitoring and its Association with Mortality among Adults with Severe Sepsis Admitted to a General Medical Ward in Uganda
Stephen B. Asiimwe, Samson Okello, Christopher C. Moore
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089879
Abstract: Introduction Optimal vital signs monitoring of patients with severe sepsis in resource-limited settings may improve outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of vital signs monitoring of patients with severe sepsis and its association with mortality in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Methods We reviewed medical records of patients admitted to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Southwestern Uganda with severe sepsis defined by the presence of infection plus ≥2 of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and ≥1 organ dysfunction (altered mental state, hypotension, jaundice, or thrombocytopenia). We recorded frequency of vital signs monitoring in addition to socio-demographic, clinical, and outcome data. We analyzed the data using logistic regression. Results We identified 202 patients with severe sepsis. The median age was 35 years (IQR, 25–47) and 98 (48%) were female. HIV infection and anemia was present in 115 (57%) and 83 (41%) patients respectively. There were 67 (33%) in-hospital deaths. The median monitoring frequency per day was 1.1 (IQR 0.9–1.5) for blood pressure, 1.0 (IQR, 0.8–1.3) for temperature and pulse, and 0.5 (IQR, 0.3–1.0) for respiratory rate. The frequency of vital signs monitoring decreased during the course of hospitalization. Patients who died had a higher frequency of vital signs monitoring (p<0.05). The admission respiratory rate was associated with both frequency of monitoring (coefficient of linear regression 0.6, 95% CI 0.5–0.8, p<0.001) and mortality (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.3, p = 0.01). Other predictors of mortality included severity of illness, HIV infection, and anemia (p<0.05). Conclusions More research is needed to determine the optimal frequency of vital signs monitoring for severely septic patients in resource-limited settings such as Uganda.
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