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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326160 matches for " Tamás Papp "
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Energy Absorption by the Membrane Rafts in the Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia (mEHT)  [PDF]
Edina Papp, Tamás Vancsik, Eva Kiss, Oliver Szasz
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.74016
Abstract: Aim: Heating by nanoparticles, which are located in the tissue to be treated, is a well-recognized method in hyperthermic oncology. Our objective is to investigate selective, nanoscopic heating without concentrating extra artificial nanoparticles. We have in silico calculation to study the heating of the transmembrane protein clusters (rafts) on cell-membrane. The transmembrane protein domains have significantly higher dielectric constant than their lipid neighborhood in the membrane. This difference causes a local gradient in the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), which could be a factor of heating of the membranes locally, as well as exciting the receptors for various signal transduction in the cells. We suppose that this process determines the observed cellular effects of modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT, trade-name: oncothermia). Materials and Methods: In silico models with highly specialized software (Computer Simulation Technology (CST), Darmstadt, Germany) were performed visualizing the selectivity for the membrane domains. Local raft models were created to simulate the electromagnetic (EM) effect of a 13.56 MHz excitation between two perfect electrical conductor plates, simulating the equipotential conditions of the sides of the membrane in the vicinity of the raft. The simulations were performed with near-field (EQS) solver of CST. The electric field, current density, and electric loss density were monitored by the simulations. The applied material properties and parameters refer to the recent literature. Results: In silico models show ten times higher energy-absorption of the transmembrane domains than that of its lipid-membrane surrounding, and intra- and extracellular neighborhood. Depending on the size, orientation, and location of the membrane rafts, the value of SAR varies, but we use only two simplified models to see the absorption properties. Taking into account the characteristics of the EM field effects we showed that the selective energy-absorption increased further by the cell-cell interactions. The model-calculation could confirm the opportunity of the local membrane heating. Conclusion: Our results indicate the heating in nanoscopic range with energy-absorption by the transmembrane proteins. The heated protein-clusters (membrane rafts) are used the same way as the artificial nanoparticles, while these absorbers are natural parts of the biological system.
Re-Mind the Gap! Insertion – Deletion Data Reveal Neglected Phylogenetic Potential of the Nuclear Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) of Fungi
László G. Nagy, Sándor Kocsubé, Zoltán Csanádi, Gábor M. Kovács, Tamás Petkovits, Csaba Vágv?lgyi, Tamás Papp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049794
Abstract: Rapidly evolving, indel-rich phylogenetic markers play a pivotal role in our understanding of the relationships at multiple levels of the tree of life. There is extensive evidence that indels provide conserved phylogenetic signal, however, the range of phylogenetic depths for which gaps retain tree signal has not been investigated in detail. Here we address this question using the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), which is central in many phylogenetic studies, molecular ecology, detection and identification of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. ITS is repeatedly criticized for indel-induced alignment problems and the lack of phylogenetic resolution above species level, although these have not been critically investigated. In this study, we examined whether the inclusion of gap characters in the analyses shifts the phylogenetic utility of ITS alignments towards earlier divergences. By re-analyzing 115 published fungal ITS alignments, we found that indels are slightly more conserved than nucleotide substitutions, and when included in phylogenetic analyses, improved the resolution and branch support of phylogenies across an array of taxonomic ranges and extended the resolving power of ITS towards earlier nodes of phylogenetic trees. Our results reconcile previous contradicting evidence for the effects of data exclusion: in the case of more sophisticated indel placement, the exclusion of indel-rich regions from the analyses results in a loss of tree resolution, whereas in the case of simpler alignment methods, the exclusion of gapped sites improves it. Although the empirical datasets do not provide to measure alignment accuracy objectively, our results for the ITS region are consistent with previous simulations studies alignment algorithms. We suggest that sophisticated alignment algorithms and the inclusion of indels make the ITS region and potentially other rapidly evolving indel-rich loci valuable sources of phylogenetic information, which can be exploited at multiple taxonomic levels.
Data Partitions, Bayesian Analysis and Phylogeny of the Zygomycetous Fungal Family Mortierellaceae, Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Sequences
Tamás Petkovits, László G. Nagy, Kerstin Hoffmann, Lysett Wagner, Ildikó Nyilasi, Thasso Griebel, Domenica Schnabelrauch, Heiko Vogel, Kerstin Voigt, Csaba Vágv?lgyi, Tamás Papp
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027507
Abstract: Although the fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest classical groups of Zygomycota, its phylogeny is poorly understood and no modern taxonomic revision is currently available. In the present study, 90 type and reference strains were used to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Mortierellales from the sequence data of the complete ITS region and the LSU and SSU genes with a special attention to the monophyly of the genus Mortierella. Out of 15 alternative partitioning strategies compared on the basis of Bayes factors, the one with the highest number of partitions was found optimal (with mixture models yielding the best likelihood and tree length values), implying a higher complexity of evolutionary patterns in the ribosomal genes than generally recognized. Modeling the ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2, loci separately improved model fit significantly as compared to treating all as one and the same partition. Further, within-partition mixture models suggests that not only the SSU, LSU and ITS regions evolve under qualitatively and/or quantitatively different constraints, but that significant heterogeneity can be found within these loci also. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Mortierella is paraphyletic with respect to the genera Dissophora, Gamsiella and Lobosporangium and the resulting phylogeny contradict previous, morphology-based sectional classification of Mortierella. Based on tree structure and phenotypic traits, we recognize 12 major clades, for which we attempt to summarize phenotypic similarities. M. longicollis is closely related to the outgroup taxon Rhizopus oryzae, suggesting that it belongs to the Mucorales. Our results demonstrate that traits used in previous classifications of the Mortierellales are highly homoplastic and that the Mortierellales is in a need of a reclassification, where new, phylogenetically informative phenotypic traits should be identified, with molecular phylogenies playing a decisive role.
Perivascular Expression and Potent Vasoconstrictor Effect of Dynorphin A in Cerebral Arteries
éva Ruisanchez, Attila Cselenyák, Rege Sugárka Papp, Tamás Németh, Krisztina Káldi, Péter Sándor, Zoltán Benyó
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037798
Abstract: Background Numerous literary data indicate that dynorphin A (DYN-A) has a significant impact on cerebral circulation, especially under pathophysiological conditions, but its potential direct influence on the tone of cerebral vessels is obscure. The aim of the present study was threefold: 1) to clarify if DYN-A is present in cerebral vessels, 2) to determine if it exerts any direct effect on cerebrovascular tone, and if so, 3) to analyze the role of κ-opiate receptors in mediating the effect. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of DYN-A in perivascular nerves of rat pial arteries as well as in both rat and human intraparenchymal vessels of the cerebral cortex. In isolated rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries (BAs and MCAs) DYN-A (1–13) and DYN-A (1–17) but not DYN-A (1–8) or dynorphin B (DYN-B) induced strong vasoconstriction in micromolar concentrations. The maximal effects, compared to a reference contraction induced by 124 mM K+, were 115±6% and 104±10% in BAs and 113±3% and 125±9% in MCAs for 10 μM of DYN-A (1–13) and DYN-A (1–17), respectively. The vasoconstrictor effects of DYN-A (1–13) could be inhibited but not abolished by both the κ-opiate receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (NORBI) and blockade of Gi/o-protein mediated signaling by pertussis toxin. Finally, des-Tyr1 DYN-A (2–13), which reportedly fails to activate κ-opiate receptors, induced vasoconstriction of 45±11% in BAs and 50±5% in MCAs at 10 μM, which effects were resistant to NORBI. Conclusion/Significance DYN-A is present in rat and human cerebral perivascular nerves and induces sustained contraction of rat cerebral arteries. This vasoconstrictor effect is only partly mediated by κ-opiate receptors and heterotrimeric Gi/o-proteins. To our knowledge our present findings are the first to indicate that DYN-A has a direct cerebral vasoconstrictor effect and that a dynorphin-induced vascular action may be, at least in part, independent of κ-opiate receptors.
Lichtheimia Species Exhibit Differences in Virulence Potential
Volker U. Schwartze, Kerstin Hoffmann, Ildikó Nyilasi, Tamás Papp, Csaba Vágv?lgyi, Sybren de Hoog, Kerstin Voigt, Ilse D. Jacobsen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040908
Abstract: Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of the five species of the genus have been found to be involved in mucormycosis, namely L. corymbifera, L. ramosa and L. ornata. However, it is not clear whether the clinical situation reflects differences in virulence between the species of Lichtheimia or whether other factors are responsible. In this study the virulence of 46 strains of all five species of Lichtheimia was investigated in chicken embryos. Additionally, strains of the closest-related genus Dichotomocladium were tested. Full virulence was restricted to the clinically relevant species while all strains of L. hyalospora, L. sphaerocystis and Dichotomocladium species were attenuated. Although virulence differences were present in the clinically relevant species, no connection between origin (environmental vs clinical) or phylogenetic position within the species was observed. Physiological studies revealed no clear connection of stress resistance and carbon source utilization with the virulence of the strains. Slower growth at 37°C might explain low virulence of L. hyalospora, L. spaherocystis and Dichotomocladium; however, similarly slow growing strains of L. ornata were fully virulent. Thus, additional factors or a complex interplay of factors determines the virulence of strains. Our data suggest that the clinical situation in fact reflects different virulence potentials in the Lichtheimiaceae.
Iteratively Refined Guide Trees Help Improving Alignment and Phylogenetic Inference in the Mushroom Family Bolbitiaceae
Annamária Tóth, Anton Hausknecht, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Tamás Papp, Csaba Vágv?lgyi, László G. Nagy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056143
Abstract: Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha). We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual) and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that – although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching – it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML) guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe.
Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve
Attila Kristóf, Zoltán Husti, István Koncz, Zsófia Kohajda, Tamás Szél, Viktor Juhász, Péter Biliczki, Norbert Jost, István Baczkó, Julius Gy Papp, András Varró, László Virág
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053255
Abstract: Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 μM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 μg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 μM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.
Bead Arrays for Antibody and Complement Profiling Reveal Joint Contribution of Antibody Isotypes to C3 Deposition
Burcu Ayoglu, Eszter Szarka, Krisztina Huber, Anita Orosz, Fruzsina Babos, Anna Magyar, Ferenc Hudecz, Bernadette Rojkovich, Tamás Gáti, Gy?rgy Nagy, Jochen M. Schwenk, Gabriella Sármay, József Prechl, Peter Nilsson, Krisztián Papp
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096403
Abstract: The development of antigen arrays has provided researchers with great tools to identify reactivities against self or foreign antigens from body fluids. Yet, these approaches mostly do not address antibody isotypes and their effector functions even though these are key points for a more detailed understanding of disease processes. Here, we present a bead array-based assay for a multiplexed determination of antigen-specific antibody levels in parallel with their properties for complement activation. We measured the deposition of C3 fragments from serum samples to reflect the degree of complement activation via all three complement activation pathways. We utilized the assay on a bead array containing native and citrullinated peptide antigens to investigate the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA autoantibodies along with their complement activating properties in serum samples of 41 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 40 controls. Our analysis revealed significantly higher IgG reactivity against the citrullinated fibrinogen β and filaggrin peptides as well as an IgA reactivity that was exclusive for citrullinated fibrinogen β peptide and C3 deposition in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In addition, we characterized the humoral immune response against the viral EBNA-1 antigen to demonstrate the applicability of this assay beyond autoimmune conditions. We observed that particular buffer compositions were demanded for separate measurement of antibody reactivity and complement activation, as detection of antigen-antibody complexes appeared to be masked due to C3 deposition. We also found that rheumatoid factors of IgM isotype altered C3 deposition and introduced false-positive reactivities against EBNA-1 antigen. In conclusion, the presented bead-based assay setup can be utilized to profile antibody reactivities and immune-complex induced complement activation in a high-throughput manner and could facilitate the understanding and diagnosis of several diseases where complement activation plays role in the pathomechanism.
Modelling of Fatigue-Type Seismic Damage for Nuclear Power Plants  [PDF]
Tamás János Katona
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2012.22006
Abstract: Assessment of seismic safety of the nuclear power plants requires knowledge of plant fragilities. In the paper, preliminary analysis is made on use of the cumulative absolute velocity in modelling of fatiguetype seismic damage. The dependence of the cumulative absolute velocity on the strong motion parameters is analysed. It is demonstrated that the cumulative absolute velocity is an appropriate damage indicator for fatigue failure mode. Failure criteria are defined in terms of cumulative absolute velocity using various fatigue failure theories.
New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) II: Albumin Suppresses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity in Human
Miklós Fagyas, Katalin úri, Ivetta M. Siket, Gábor á. Fül?p, Viktória Csató, Andrea Daragó, Judit Boczán, Emese Bányai, István Elek Szentkirályi, Tamás Miklós Maros, Tamás Szerafin, István édes, Zoltán Papp, Attila Tóth
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087844
Abstract: About 8% of the adult population is taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in these patients. We and others have reported previously that endogenous inhibitory substances suppress serum ACE activity, in vivo, similarly to the ACE inhibitor drugs. Here we have made an effort to identify this endogenous ACE inhibitor substance. ACE was crosslinked with interacting proteins in human sera. The crosslinked products were immunoprecipitated and subjected to Western blot. One of the crosslinked products was recognized by both anti-ACE and anti-HSA (human serum albumin) antibodies. Direct ACE-HSA interaction was confirmed by binding assays using purified ACE and HSA. HSA inhibited human purified (circulating) and human recombinant ACE with potencies (IC50) of 5.7±0.7 and 9.5±1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Effects of HSA on the tissue bound native ACE were tested on human saphenous vein samples. Angiotensin I evoked vasoconstriction was inhibited by HSA in this vascular tissue (maximal force with HSA: 6.14±1.34 mN, without HSA: 13.54±2.63 mN), while HSA was without effects on angiotensin II mediated constrictions (maximal force with HSA: 18.73±2.17 mN, without HSA: 19.22±3.50 mN). The main finding of this study is that HSA was identified as a potent physiological inhibitor of the ACE. The enzymatic activity of ACE appears to be almost completely suppressed by HSA when it is present in its physiological concentration. These data suggest that angiotensin I conversion is limited by low physiological ACE activities, in vivo.
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