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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462642 matches for " Talisha A. Hunter "
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Replication of EPHA1 and CD33 associations with late-onset Alzheimer's disease: a multi-centre case-control study
Minerva M Carrasquillo, Olivia Belbin, Talisha A Hunter, Li Ma, Gina D Bisceglio, Fanggeng Zou, Julia E Crook, V Pankratz, Sigrid B Sando, Jan O Aasly, Maria Barcikowska, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Neill R Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, Peter Passmore, Kevin Morgan, for the Alzheimer's Research UK (ARUK) consortium, Steven G Younkin
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-54
Abstract: We found no significant evidence of series heterogeneity. Associations with LOAD were successfully replicated for EPHA1 (rs11767557; OR = 0.87, p = 5 × 10-4) and CD33 (rs3865444; OR = 0.92, p = 0.049), with odds ratios comparable to those previously reported. Although the two ARID5B variants (rs2588969 and rs494288) showed significant association with LOAD in meta-analysis of our dataset (p = 0.046 and 0.008, respectively), the associations did not survive adjustment for covariates (p = 0.30 and 0.11, respectively). We had insufficient evidence in our data to support the association of the CD2AP variant (rs9349407, p = 0.56).Our data overwhelmingly support the association of EPHA1 and CD33 variants with LOAD risk: addition of our data to the results previously reported (total n > 42,000) increased the strength of evidence for these variants, providing impressive p-values of 2.1 × 10-15 (EPHA1) and 1.8 × 10-13 (CD33).Following the identification of the APOE ε4 allele as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in 1993 [1], consistent replication of subsequently identified candidates was not achieved until 2009, when two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) [2,3] identified associations of variants in or near CLU, PICALM , and CR1 with LOAD, which were consistently replicated in multiple large, independent case-control studies [4-17]. Subsequently, a variant near BIN1 was reported [4] to achieve genome-wide significant association in a later GWAS published in 2010 that also replicated well in follow-up studies [14-19]. These results demonstrate the utility of the hypothesis-free GWAS approach for identifying loci that associate with LOAD and the necessity of pooling samples and data from multiple centers to obtain resources with sufficient statistical power (GWAS typically > 14,000, follow-up typically total > 28,000) to detect the modest ORs (e.g. 0.8/1.2) associated with these variants in GWAS and follow-up studies.Two recently published companion s
Linking Protective GAB2 Variants, Increased Cortical GAB2 Expression and Decreased Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology
Fanggeng Zou, Olivia Belbin, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Oliver J. Culley, Talisha A. Hunter, Li Ma, Gina D. Bisceglio, Mariet Allen, Dennis W. Dickson, Neill R. Graff-Radford, Ronald C. Petersen, the Genetic and Environmental Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (GERAD1) Consortium , Kevin Morgan, Steven G. Younkin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064802
Abstract: GRB-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) represents a compelling genome-wide association signal for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) with reported odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.75–0.85. We tested eight GAB2 variants in four North American Caucasian case-control series (2,316 LOAD, 2,538 controls) for association with LOAD. Meta-analyses revealed ORs ranging from (0.61–1.20) with no significant association (all p>0.32). Four variants were hetergeneous across the populations (all p<0.02) due to a potentially inflated effect size (OR = 0.61–0.66) only observed in the smallest series (702 LOAD, 209 controls). Despite the lack of association in our series, the previously reported protective association for GAB2 remained after meta-analyses of our data with all available previously published series (11,952-22,253 samples; OR = 0.82–0.88; all p<0.04). Using a freely available database of lymphoblastoid cell lines we found that protective GAB2 variants were associated with increased GAB2 expression (p = 9.5×10?7?9.3×10?6). We next measured GAB2 mRNA levels in 249 brains and found that decreased neurofibrillary tangle (r = ?0.34, p = 0.0006) and senile plaque counts (r = ?0.32, p = 0.001) were both good predictors of increased GAB2 mRNA levels albeit that sex (r = ?0.28, p = 0.005) may have been a contributing factor. In summary, we hypothesise that GAB2 variants that are protective against LOAD in some populations may act functionally to increase GAB2 mRNA levels (in lymphoblastoid cells) and that increased GAB2 mRNA levels are associated with significantly decreased LOAD pathology. These findings support the hypothesis that Gab2 may protect neurons against LOAD but due to significant population heterogeneity, it is still unclear whether this protection is detectable at the genetic level.
Wanted Posters: A Call for Research
Hunter A. McAllister
The Open Criminology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874917800801010001]
Abstract: Wanted posters are an important investigative tool, yet there has been no psychological research on their effectiveness. This paper demonstrates that wanted poster tasks are significantly different from other police procedures, such as lineups and composites, making generalizations from these other procedures questionable. A call is made for research on this as yet unexplored topic.
The Stellar Population and Star Clusters in the Unusual Local Group Galaxy IC 10
Deidre A. Hunter
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322399
Abstract: We present analysis of HST U,V,I, and Halpha images of the peculiar Local Group irregular galaxy IC 10. The images are used to determine the nature of the stellar products in a portion of the recent starburst in this galaxy. We identified 13 stellar associations and clusters, two of which are probably old (>350 Myr) and the rest of which are young (4-30 Myr) and presumably formed in the starburst. We found the following: 1) The slope of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) for 6.3--18 Msolar stars formed in the starburst lies between two limiting cases: a value of -1.9+/-0.4 under the assumption of coevality over the past 13 Myr and of -0.9+/-0.3 under the assumption of constant star formation over the past 40 Myr. Thus, most likely, the IMF of the intermediate mass stars is not very unusual. The slope of the IMF for the underlying galaxy population under the assumption of constant star formation is -2.6+/-0.3 for 4.8-18 Msolar stars. 2) The lower stellar mass limit in the starburst is <6.3 Msolar. This constraint is less than some predictions of what lower stellar mass limits might be in starbursts, but higher than others. 3) There are two modest-sized Halpha shells that could easily have been produced in the past few Myr by the clusters they encircle. 4) The dominant mode of star formation in the starburst has been that of a scaled-up OB association. This mode, with a few compact clusters sprinkled in, is similar to the star formation that took place in Constellation III in the LMC, as well as that in the Blue Compact Dwarfs IZw18 and VIIZw403. The starburst in this part of IC10 has not produced a super star cluster. We suggest that the high WC/WN ratio could be reproduced if there were small, well-synchronized (<1 Myr), but widely scattered, pockets of secondary star formation 3-4 Myr ago.
Prioritizing Riparian Corridors for Water Quality Protection in Urbanizing Watersheds  [PDF]
Samuel F. Atkinson, Bruce A. Hunter, April R. English
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.27078
Abstract: The cumulative effects of urbanization on riparian corridors can decrease the quality of water entering local streams, and ultimately adversely impact drinking water reservoirs of local municipalities. As such, a GIS and remote sensing based analysis tool called the Water Quality Corridor Management (WQCM) model was designed to identify and pri-oritize highly functioning riparian ecosystems for the preservation of stream corridor conditions. Preservation priority among various riparian corridors is established in the model by analyzing five parameters associated with stream corri-dor conditions (vegetation type, erosion potential, surface slope, percent of the stream contained within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year floodplain, and amount of the stream corridor contained within a subwatershed); and each parameter is weighted and scaled based on what conditions are most important to protect. Because data associated with each parameter are readily available and easily manipulated via spatial analysis techniques, the WQCM model functions as a flexible methodology for predicting stream corridor conditions and allows watershed managers to identify potential preservation opportunities to ensure long term ecological functioning that protects water quality. These corridors can then also provide urban planners with potential natural spaces for urban dwellers, meeting multiple benefits requirements imposed by many municipalities.
Education is the key to protecting children against smoking: What parents think and do  [PDF]
S. P. Small, A. L. Brennan-Hunter
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.42015
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ communication with their children about the topic of smoking. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Twenty-nine parents who lived in rural communities and who had children in kindergarten to Grade 6 were interviewed. The data were analyzed for themes. A large majority of parents communicated with their children about smoking through verbal interaction, using any one of three approaches: discussing smoking with their children, telling their children about smoking, or acknowledging their childrens understanding of smoking. Those parents also had shown disapproval of smoking, which took different forms and varied from explicit messages in their verbal communication to implicit messages in their behaviours. Three parents had not verbally communicated at all with their children about smoking. Overall, the parents’ communication patterns with their children varied in terms of quality and coherence with recommendations in the literature.

Local versus Global Search in Channel Graphs
A. H. Hunter,Nicholas Pippenger
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Previous studies of search in channel graphs has assumed that the search is global; that is, that the status of any link can be probed by the search algorithm at any time. We consider for the first time local search, for which only links to which an idle path from the source has already been established may be probed. We show that some well known channel graphs may require exponentially more probes, on the average, when search must be local than when it may be global.
A Novel Method of Network Text Analysis  [PDF]
Starling Hunter
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.42028
Abstract:

This paper describes a novel method of network text analysis, one that involves a new approach to 1) the selection of words from a text, 2) the aggregation of those words into higher-order concepts, 3) the kind of the relationship that establishes statements from pairs of concepts and 4) the extraction of meaning from the text network formed by these statements. After describing the method, I apply it to a sample of the seven most recent winners of the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay―Little Miss Sunshine, Juno, Milk, The Hurt Locker, The King’s Speech, Midnight in Paris, and Django Unchained. Consistent with prior research, I demonstrate that structure encodes meaning. Specifically, it is shown that statements associated with a text network’s least constrained nodes are consistent with themes in the films’ synopses found on Wikipedia, the International Movie Database, and Rotten Tomatoes.

Biology of recently discovered cytokines: Discerning the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of interleukin-27
Alejandro V Villarino, Christopher A Hunter
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/ar1227
Abstract: IL-27 is a heterodimeric member of the IL-6/IL-12 family of type I cytokines [1,2]. Like IL-12 and IL-23 [1], IL-27 is the pairing of a helical protein (IL-27p28) with a soluble cytokine receptor-like component (Epstein–Barr virus-induced gene 3 [EBI3]; Fig. 1) [1,3]. Similar to IL-12p40 and soluble forms of IL-6 receptor components [4], EBI3 contains two cytokine binding domains but lacks membrane anchoring motifs and a cytoplasmic tail (Fig. 1) [5]. Originally identified as an IL-12p40 homolog that is secreted by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) transformed B cells [5], EBI3 is produced by a range of immune cell lineages including B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cells [3,5-7].While typically low or absent in resting cells, EBI3 expression is constitutive in several human lymphomas [8] and can be elicited by pathogen and host derived inflammatory stimuli [3,5,6]. For instance, in B cells, EBI3 production is directly induced by EBV latent membrane protein 1 [9]. Likewise, monocytes and DCs secrete EBI3 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CD40 ligation or exposure to inflammatory cytokines [3,6,10,11]. Since production of EBI3 is limited to activated immune cells, expression levels are highest in the spleen [3,5,6], lymph nodes [3,5,6], placenta [12,13] and sites of chronic inflammation [7,14-16]. Thus the induction by inflammatory stimuli and its prevalence in lymphoid tissues suggest that EBI3 plays a role in the regulation of immune responses.Since EBI3 shows no direct activity on its own [5], it is likely that, like IL-12p40, it must associate with other proteins to form bioactive cytokines. One dimeric partner for EBI3 is IL-27p28 (Fig. 1), a helical cytokine that was identified through its homology to IL-12p35 and IL-6 [3]. While it is possible that IL-27p28 can associate with other proteins, expression of this gene is only detected concurrently with that of EBI3 [3,6,10,17-20]. As with IL-12p35, IL-27p28 gene transcription is tightly regu
Advances in understanding immunity to Toxoplasma gondii
Tait, Elia D;Hunter, Christopher A;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200013
Abstract: toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of clinical disease in fetuses, infants and immunocompromised patients. since the discovery of t. gondii 100 years ago, this pathogen and the host's immune response to toxoplasmosis have been studied intensely. this has led to the development of a working model of immunity to t. gondii, and has also resulted in fundamental new insights into the role of various cytokines in resistance to infection. by examining this organism, researchers have identified many of the requirements for resistance to intracellular pathogens and characterized numerous regulatory factors, including interleukin-10 (il-10) and il-27, which control inflammatory processes. in the next 100 years of t. gondii immunobiology, researchers will have the opportunity to answer some of the long-standing questions in the field using new techniques and reagents. these future studies will be vital in building a more comprehensive model of immunity to this pathogen and in advancing our understanding of immunoregulation, particularly in humans. ultimately, the challenge will be to use this information to develop new vaccines and therapies to manage disease in affected patients.
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