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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2350 matches for " Takeshi Usui "
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Analysis of the Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Optic Neuritis
Takeshi Kezuka,Yoshihiko Usui,Hiroshi Goto
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/294046
Abstract: Optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis has a strong association with organ-specific autoimmune disease. The goal of our research is to establish an optimal organ-specific animal model to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease and to develop therapeutic strategies using the model. This paper is divided into five sections: (1) clinical picture of optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis, (2) elucidation of pathogenesis using animal models with inflammation in optic nerve and spinal cord, (3) clinical relevance of concurrent encephalomyelitis in optic neuritis model, (4) retinal damage in a concurrent multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis model, and (5) development of novel therapies using mouse optic neuritis model. Advanced therapies using biologicals have succeeded to control intractable optic neuritis in animal models. This may ultimately lead to prevention of vision loss within a short period from acute onset of optic neuritis in human. By conducting research flexibly, ready to switch from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the bench as the opportunity arises, this strategy may help to guide the research of optic neuritis in the right direction.
Evolution of Water Reservoirs on Mars: Constraints from Hydrogen Isotopes in Martian Meteorites
Hiroyuki Kurokawa,Masahiko Sato,Masashi Ushioda,Takeshi Matsuyama,Ryota Moriwaki,James M. Dohm,Tomohiro Usui
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.027
Abstract: Martian surface morphology implies that Mars was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. While the high D/H ratios (~6 times the Earth's ocean water) of the current martian atmosphere suggest that significant water has been lost from the surface during martian history, the timing, processes, and the amount of the water loss have been poorly constrained. Recent technical developments of ion-microprobe analysis of martian meteorites have provided accurate estimation of hydrogen isotope compositions (D/H) of martian water reservoirs at the time when the meteorites formed. Based on the D/H data from the meteorites, this study demonstrates that the water loss during the pre-Noachian (>41-99 m global equivalent layers, GEL) was more significant than in the rest of martian history (>10-53 m GEL). Combining our results with geological and geomorphological evidence for ancient oceans, we propose that undetected subsurface water/ice (~100-1000 m GEL) should have existed, and it exceeds the observable present water inventory (~20-30 m GEL) on Mars.
Heat Transfer Enhancement by Vortex Generators for Compact Heat Exchanger of Automobiles  [PDF]
Shigeru Ogawa, Soma Usui
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2018.83020
Abstract: The paper describes the effects of heat transfer enhancement and gas-flow characteristics by wing-type-vortex-generators inside a rectangular gas-flow duct of a plate-fin structure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler used in a cooled-EGR system. The analyses are conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The numerical modelling is designed as a gas-flow rectangular duct of an EGR cooler using two fluids with high temperature gas and coolant water whose flow directions are opposite. The gas-flow duct used to separate two fluids is assembled with a stainless steel material. The inlet temperature and velocity of gas flowed inside gas-flow duct are 400°C and 30 m/s, respectively. Coolant water is flowed into two ducts on both a top and a bottom surface of the gas-flow duct, and the inlet temperature and velocity is 80°C and 0.6 m/s, respectively. Wing-type-vortex-generators are designed to achieve good cooling performance and low pressure drop and positioned at the center of the gas-flow duct with angle of inclination from 30 to 150 degrees at every 15 degrees. The temperature distributions and velocity vectors gained from numerical results were compared, and discussed. As a result, it is found that the vortices guided in the proximity of heat transfer surfaces play an important role in the heat transfer enhancement and low pressure drop. The collapse of the vortices is caused by complicated flow induced in the corner constituted by two surfaces inside gas-flow duct.
Eprobe Mediated Real-Time PCR Monitoring and Melting Curve Analysis
Takeshi Hanami, Diane Delobel, Hajime Kanamori, Yuki Tanaka, Yasumasa Kimura, Ayako Nakasone, Takahiro Soma, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Kengo Usui, Matthias Harbers
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070942
Abstract: Real-time monitoring of PCR is one of the most important methods for DNA and RNA detection widely used in research and medical diagnostics. Here we describe a new approach for combined real-time PCR monitoring and melting curve analysis using a 3′ end-blocked Exciton-Controlled Hybridization-sensitive fluorescent Oligonucleotide (ECHO) called Eprobe. Eprobes contain two dye moieties attached to the same nucleotide and their fluorescent signal is strongly suppressed as single-stranded oligonucleotides by an excitonic interaction between the dyes. Upon hybridization to a complementary DNA strand, the dyes are separated and intercalate into the double-strand leading to strong fluorescence signals. Intercalation of dyes can further stabilize the DNA/DNA hybrid and increase the melting temperature compared to standard DNA oligonucleotides. Eprobes allow for specific real-time monitoring of amplification reactions by hybridizing to the amplicon in a sequence-dependent manner. Similarly, Eprobes allow for analysis of reaction products by melting curve analysis. The function of different Eprobes was studied using the L858R mutation in the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and multiplex detection was demonstrated for the human EGFR and KRAS genes using Eprobes with two different dyes. Combining amplification and melting curve analysis in a single-tube reaction provides powerful means for new mutation detection assays. Functioning as “sequence-specific dyes”, Eprobes hold great promises for future applications not only in PCR but also as hybridization probes in other applications.
Procedural Participation in the Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment System and the Population's Attitude
Kanji Usui
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2002,
Abstract: The study evaluates "Procedural participation" in the Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system and how it affects the attitude of the people affected by the implementation of a controversial project. The "San Roque Multipurpose Project" is used as the case study for collecting data about the people's perception and to verify a hypothetical model. The results show that: 1) The unsuitable implementation of the Procedural Participation has a negative impact on the attitude of the population; 2) The unsuitable implementation of Procedural participation has made the media more influential in shaping the attitude of the population; 3) Public interest on the project is a crucial factor in altering the population's attitude to the project.
A Note on Reflection Positivity and the Umezawa-Kamefuchi-Kallen-Lehmann Representation of Two Point Correlation Functions
Kouta Usui
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: It will be proved that a model of lattice field theories which satisfies (A1) Hermiticity, (A2) translational invariance, (A3) reflection positivity, and (A4) polynomial boundedness of correlations, permits the Umezaa-Kamefuchi-Kallen-Lehmann representation of two point correlation functions with positive spectral density function. Then, we will also argue that positivity of spectral density functions is necessary for a lattice theory to satisfy conditions (A1) - (A4). As an example, a lattice overlap scalar boson model will be discussed. We will find that the overlap scalar boson violates the reflection positivity.
Studies of closed/open mirror symmetry for quintic threefold through log mixed Hodge theory
Sampei Usui
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We correct the definitions and descriptions of the integral structures in [U14]. The previous flat basis in [ibid] is characterized by the Frobenius solutions and integral in the first approximation by mean of the graded quotients of monodromy filtration, but not integral in the strict sense. In this article, we use the integral structure of Iritani in [I11] for A-model. Using this precise version, we study open mirror symmetry for quintic threefolds through log mixed Hodge theory, especially the recent result on Neron models for admissible normal functions with non-torsion extensions in the joint work [KNU14] with K. Kato and C. Nakayama. We understand asymptotic conditions as values in the fiber over a base point on the boundary of S^{log}.
Heegaard Floer homology, L-spaces and smoothing order on links II
Takuya Usui
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We focus on L-spaces for which the boundary maps of the Heegaard Floer chain complexes vanish. In previous paper \cite{Usui}, we collect such manifolds systematically by using the smoothing order on links. In this paper, we classify such L-spaces under appropreate constraint.
Heegaard Floer homology, L-spaces and smoothing order on links I
Takuya Usui
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we focus on L-spaces for which the boundary maps of the Heegaard Floer chain complexes vanish. We collect such manifolds systematically by using the smoothing order on links.
Effect of Dehydroaltenusin-C12 Derivative, a Selective DNA Polymerase α Inhibitor, on DNA Replication in Cultured Cells
Isoko Kuriyama,Takeshi Mizuno,Keishi Fukudome,Kouji Kuramochi,Kazunori Tsubaki,Takeo Usui,Naoko Imamoto,Kengo Sakaguchi,Fumio Sugawara,Hiromi Yoshida,Yoshiyuki Mizushina
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13122948
Abstract: Dehydroaltenusin is a selective inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase α (pol α) from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a derivative of dehydroaltenusin conjugated with a C12-alkyl side chain (dehydroaltenusin-C12 [C12]). C12 was the strongest pol α inhibitor in vitro. We introduced C12 into NIH3T3 cells with the help of a hypotonic shift, that is, a transient exposure of cultured cells in hypotonic buffer with small molecules which can not penetrate cells. The cells that took in C12 by hypotonic shift showed cell growth inhibition. At a low concentration (5 μM), DNA replication was inhibited and several large replication protein A (RPA) foci, which is different from dUTP foci. Furthermore, when C12 was incubated with aphidicolin, RPA foci were not observed in cells. Finally, these findings suggest that C12 inhibited DNA replication through pol α inhibition, and generated single-stranded DNA, resulted in uncoupling of the leading strand and lagging strand synthesis. These findings suggest that C12 could be more interesting as a molecule probe or anticancer agent than aphidicolin. C12 might provide novel markers for the development of antiproliferative drugs.
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