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Treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sebsibe Tadesse, Takele Tadesse
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65044

Evaluating the outcomes of DOTS program is essential for recognizing and amending system failures before the incidence and proportion of resistant isolates rise. In this study, we seek to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis treatment success rate in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. Medical records of 1305 pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients registered from 2007 to 2012 at two health centers in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia, were reviewed. Treatment outcomes and forms of tuberculosis were assessed according to WHO guidelines. Descriptive analyses were performed using frequencies and percentages. Treatment success rate was observed in 1146 (87.8%) patients. Out of these, 534 (89.1%) of the males and 612 (86.7%) of the females were successfully treated. It was also true in 338 (87.8%) of the smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 473 (85.7%) of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and 335 (91.0%) of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients. In conclusion, treatment success rate in the current study was slightly higher than the WHO international updated target for the period 2011 to 2015. However, this doesn’t mean that there will be no need for further enhancement of supervision and monitoring techniques, strengthening counseling and health education programs, and improving the quality of laboratory diagnostic services.

Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
Zewdie Aderaw,Dagnew Engdaw,Takele Tadesse
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/657275
Abstract: Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (<30 years) (AOR 1.90, 95% CI (1.22, 2.94)), male gender (AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.58, 4.07)), health and safety training (AOR 1.85, 95% CI (1.17, 2.91)), sleeping disturbance (AOR 1.99, 95% CI (1.30, 3.04)), and job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41)) were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended. 1. Introduction An occupational injury is any physical injury condition sustained on a worker in connection with the performance of his or her work in the industry. Employed people in industries spend at least one third of a day at work which have a strong effect on their health and safety due to work and work-related injuries [1]. These occupational injuries pose a major public health and developmental problems which result in a serious health, social, and economic consequences on workers and their employers [2, 3]. Worldwide in 2005, an estimated of 250 million occupational injuries and 5.4 million deaths due to injuries occurred annually. From this, over 90 percent was in low- and middle-income countries where the greatest concentration of world’s workforce and low level of factories found [4]. This problem costs the world a loss of roughly 4% of the gross national product [5, 6]. Despite this, only 5 to 10 percent of the workforce in developing countries has access to some kind of occupational health and safety services [6]. Ethiopia has been a member state of International Labor Organization and signed conventions related to health and safety of factory workers since 1923. However, the
Two-Thirds of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Cases in the Community Were Undiagnosed in Northwest Ethiopia: Population Based Cross-Sectional Study
Takele Tadesse, Meaza Demissie, Yemane Berhane, Yigzaw Kebede, Markos Abebe
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028258
Abstract: Background Tuberculosis (TB) case detection rate remains low in Ethiopia. One of the underlying reasons is the emphasis on passive case finding strategy which may seriously underestimate the burden of the disease. Estimating the prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB through active case finding at population level can help assessing the degree to which passive case detection is successful. Methods and findings This is population based cross-sectional study. The study population was all individuals aged ≥14 years. Interviews using a uniform questionnaire were done initially to identify individuals with chronic cough (≥15 days) and the two sputum (spot and morning) samples were gathered for standard smear microscopy. A total of 23,590 individuals aged ≥14 years were interviewed and 984 had a chronic cough for ≥15 days. Of 831 individuals who provided two sputum samples for acid fast bacilli (AFB), 41 had positive smears. A total of 22 smear-positive TB cases detected through passive case finding were on anti-TB treatment. The prevalence of new smear-positive TB was 174 per 100,000 in persons aged ≥14 years (95% CI: 121–227).The ratio of active to passive case finding was 2:1. Higher rates of smear-positivity were observed among females [AOR: 3.28, 95% CI (1.54–6.77)], and in the age group ≥45 years [AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.12–4.59). Conclusions The study revealed that about two-thirds of patients with active TB remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. This may indicate the need for strengthening case detection at the community level. Furthermore, the high burden of TB among females and in the age group ≥45 years warrants appropriate measures to control the disease.
The Clustering of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: A Population Based Cross Sectional Study
Takele Tadesse, Meaza Demissie, Yemane Berhane, Yigzaw Kebede, Markos Abebe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065022
Abstract: Background In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space–time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. Conclusion Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.
Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Community and Importance of Camel and other Livestock Species in Tahitay-Adiyabo District, Tigray Region in the Northern Periphery of Ethiopia  [PDF]
Yosef Tadesse
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.92019
Abstract: The study was undertaken in the northern periphery of the country, Tigray region, north-west Tigray zone, Tahitay Adiyabo district from February to March, 2017. For this study, four Kebeles were selected purposively based on the presence of two major community groups (Tigrayans and Kunama) and presence of camel species and other livestock species. Seventy-two (72) households per district, of which 38 households from two kebeles for Kunama community and 34 households from two kebeles for Tigrayan community groups were selected randomly. A software package of SAS (2008) was employed to generate descriptive statistics for qualitative and quantitative data. As the study revealed, three-fifth and two-fifth of the respondents in the study area were illiterate and attended primary education respectively. The two community groups were significantly (P < 0.05) different on educational status and Tigriyans respondents were more educated than the other counterpart. More than 2/3 children (7 - 17 years of age) of the respondents in the study area were attended school. Exceptionally, more than 75% of the children for Tigriyan community group in the district were attended school whereas 3/5th of Kunama community children were attended school education. Average family size per household in the study area was 6.22 ±
Polymorphism in the HASPB Repeat Region of East African Leishmania donovani Strains
Arie Zackay,Abdelmajeed Nasereddin,Yegnasew Takele,Dagimawie Tadesse,Workagegnehu Hailu,Zewdu Hurissa,Sisay Yifru,Teklu Weldegebreal,Ermias Diro,Aysheshm Kassahun,Asrat Hailu,Charles L. Jaffe
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002031
Abstract: Background/Objectives Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Parasites in disparate regions are transmitted by different vectors, and cluster in distinctive genotypes. Recently isolated strains from VL and HIV-VL co-infected patients in north and south Ethiopia were characterized as part of a longitudinal study on VL transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-three L. donovani strains were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three regions: internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), cysteine protease B (cpb), and HASPB (k26). ITS1- and cpb - PCR identified these strains as L. donovani. Interestingly, the k26 - PCR amplicon size varied depending on the patient's geographic origin. Most strains from northwestern Ethiopia (36/40) produced a 290 bp product with a minority (4/40) giving a 410 bp amplicon. All of the latter strains were isolated from patients with HIV-VL co-infections, while the former group contained both VL and HIV-VL co-infected patients. Almost all the strains (20/23) from southwestern Ethiopia produced a 450 bp amplicon with smaller products (290 or 360 bp) only observed for three strains. Sudanese strains produced amplicons identical (290 bp) to those found in northwestern Ethiopia; while Kenyan strains gave larger PCR products (500 and 650 bp). High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis distinguished the different PCR products. Sequence analysis showed that the k26 repeat region in L. donovani is comprised of polymorphic 13 and 14 amino acid motifs. The 13 amino acid peptide motifs, prevalent in L. donovani, are rare in L. infantum. The number and order of the repeats in L. donovani varies between geographic regions. Conclusions/Significance HASPB repeat region (k26) shows considerable polymorphism among L. donovani strains from different regions in East Africa. This should be taken into account when designing diagnostic assays and vaccines based on this antigen.
GIS Based Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model: The Case of Jabi Tehinan Woreda, ANRS, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Amsalu, Abebe Mengaw
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511054
Soil degradation in the form of soil erosion is a serious and continuous environmental problem in Jabi Tehinan Woreda. Uncontrolled land use, deforestation, over cultivation, overgrazing and exploitation of biomass for firewood, construction and other household uses due to increasing population ultimately lead to severe soil erosion. The impact of natural hazards like erosion can be minimized and ultimately controlled by disaster preparedness maps. Therefore, the overall objective of this paper is to quantify and map an estimated soil loss by examining different topographic and anthropogenic factors for the planning and implementations of sustainable soil conservation and management system in the study area. This study had integrated Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques to quantify and map erosion vulnerable areas using RUSLE model. Slope gradient, slope length, soil type, soil conservations techniques, cover management and rainfall variables were used as input model parameters/variables. The data had been collected and analyzed from different land sat imageries, SRTM data, topomaps and point interpolations of primary data. Finally, the aggregated effects of all parameters had been analyzed and soil loss from the area was calculated using RUSEL models. After analyzing all model parameters, areas in steeper slope with Lithosols, Eutric Nitosols, Orthic Luvisols, croplands, bare lands and river banks have been identified as the most erosion vulnerable areas. Quantitatively, an estimated annual soil loss in Jabi Tehinan Woreda ranges from nearly 0 in south and central parts of the area to 504.6 t/ha/yr in steeply sloping mountainous areas of the north and north-eastern parts of the catchments.
Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting HoMo6S8  [PDF]
Tadesse Desta, Gebregziabher Kahsay
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.51004
Abstract: This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the superconducting HoMo6S8. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and using the Green’s function formalism and equation of motion method, we have obtained expressions for superconducting transition temperature (Tc), magnetic order temperature (Tm), superconductivity order parameter (D) and magnetic order parameter (η). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of energy gap parameter versus transition temperature, superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter are plotted separately. By combining the phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in superconducting HoMo6S8.<
Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
A Technical Note: Orientation of Cracks and Hydrology in a Shrink-Swell Soil  [PDF]
Takele M. Dinka, Robert J. Lascano
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.22013
Abstract: Crack orientations are an important soil physical property that affects water flow, particularly in vertic soils. However, the spatial and temporal variability of crack orientations across different land uses and gilgai features is not well-documented and addressed in hydrology models. Thus; there is a need to quantify crack orientations for different land uses and to incorporate their spatial and temporal dynamics into hydrological models. Our objectives were to document the spatial variability of cracks orientations across two land uses and to demonstrate the potential importance of crack orientation related to the hydrology of Vertisols. The exploratory field measurements of the spatial distribution of crack orientations across two Vertisol catenae of two land uses and gilgai features are presented. The field survey showed the complexity of crack geometry in a field, the potential impact of crack orientation on Vertisol hydrology and the challenges associated with measurement of crack orientations.
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