Background: Some patients present clinical features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which has led to the recent proposal of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) as a diagnosis. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a candidate biomarker to diagnose ACO. We assessed the effect of an add-on treatment with budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) combination in patients with ACO, which was diagnosed by FeNO. Methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, before and after comparison study. Subjects included 83 patients with COPD who attended outpatient clinics for routine checkups at Shizuoka General Hospital between June and November 2016. All patients fulfilled the GOLD definition of COPD and were receiving long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or LAMA/long-acting β_{2} agonist (LABA) combinations. After an 8-week run-in period, BUD/FM was added to the patients with FeNO levels of ≥35 ppb, defined as having ACO. For patients receiving LAMA/LABA, BUD/FM was added after the discontinuation of LABA. The modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, COPD assessment test (CAT) score, spirometric indices, forced oscillation parameters, and FeNO were assessed before and after 8 weeks of BUD/ FM add-on treatment. Results: Twenty-four patients (28.9%) had FeNO levels ≥ 35 ppb, and 17 patients completed the study (mean age: 73 years and GOLD I/II/III/IV, 5/10/1/1). The mean CAT scores significantly improved (9.2 to 5.4, p = 0.015) and 10 patients (58.8%) showed ≥2 points improvement, a minimal clinically important difference. The mean FeNO levels significantly decreased from 63.0 to 34.3 ppb (p < 0.006). However, there were no changes in mMRC scores, spirometric indices, or forced oscillation parameters. Conclusions: FeNO-guided treatment with BUD/FM improves symptoms in patients with ACO.

Abstract:
An unusual formula for the Euler characteristics of even dimensional triangulated manifolds is deduced from the generalized Dehn-Sommerville equations.

Abstract:
Given an odd prime number $p$ and a Coxeter group $W$ such that the order of the product $st$ is prime to $p$ for every Coxeter generators $s,t$ of $W$, we prove that the $p$-local homology groups $H_k(W,\mathbb{Z}_{(p)})$ vanish for $1\leq k\leq 2(p-2)$. This generalize a known vanishing result for symmetric groups due to Minoru Nakaoka.

Abstract:
We prove that rational homology of the Torelli group of genus g is infinite dimensional, provided g>6. This means that rational homology of the Torelli space of genus g>6 is infinite dimensional. The Torelli groups with marked points are also considered. In addition, we prove that rational homology of the subgroup of the Torelli group of genus g generated by all the Dehn twists along separating simple closed curves is infinite dimensional for g>2.

Abstract:
It has been suggested that when juveniles and adults use different resources or habitats, alternative stable states (ASS) may exist in systems coupled by an ontogenetic niche shift. However, mainly the simplest system, i.e., the one-consumer–two-resource system, has been studied previously, and little is known about the development of ASS existing in more complex systems. Here, I theoretically investigated the development of ASS caused by an ontogenetic niche shift in the presence of multiple resource use. I considered three independent scenarios; (i) additional resources, (ii) multiple habitats, and (iii) interstage resource sharing. The model analyses illustrate that relative balance between the total resource availability in the juvenile and adult habitats is crucial for the development of ASS. This balance is determined by factors such as local habitat productivity, subsidy inputs, colonization area, and foraging mobility. Furthermore, it is also shown that interstage resource sharing generally suppresses ASS. These results suggest that the anthropogenic impacts of habitat modifications (e.g., fragmentation and destruction) or interaction modifications (e.g., changes in ontogeny and foraging behavior) propagate through space and may cause or prevent regime shifts in the regional community structure.

Abstract:
Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a “non-genomic transmission of maternal environment,” even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

Abstract:
Given a finite quandle, we introduce a quandle homotopy invariant of knotted surfaces in the 4-sphere, modifying that of classical links. This invariant is valued in the third homotopy group of the quandle space, and is universal among the (generalized) quandle cocycle invariants. We compute the second and third homotopy groups, with respect to "regular Alexander quandles". As a corollary, any quandle cocycle invariant using the dihedral quandle of prime order is a scalar multiple of the Mochizuki 3-cocycle invariant. As another result, we determine the third quandle homology group of the dihedral quandle of odd order.

Abstract:
T. Mochizuki determined all 3-cocycles of the third quandle cohomologies of Alexander quandles on finite fields. We show that all the 3-cocycles, except those of 2-cocycle forms, are derived from group 3-cocycles of a meta-abelian group. Further, the quandle cocycle invariant of a link using Mochizuki's 3-cocycle is equivalent to a $\Z$-equivariant part of the Dijkgraaf-Witten invariant of a cyclic covering of $S^3$ branched over the link using the group. We compute some Massey triple products via the former invariant.

Abstract:
This paper demonstrates a topological meaning of quandle cocycle invariants of links with respect to finite connected quandles $X$, from a perspective of homotopy theory: Specifically, for any prime $\ell$ which does not divide the type of $X$, the $\ell$-torsion of this invariants is equal to a sum of the colouring polynomial and a $\Z$-equivariant part of the Dijkgraaf-Witten invariant of a cyclic branched covering space. Moreover, our homotopical approach involves application of computing some third homology groups and second homotopy groups of the classifying spaces of quandles, from results of group cohomology.

Abstract:
We propose a simple method to produce quandle cocycles from group cocycles, as a modification of Inoue-Kabaya chain map. We further show that, in respect to "universal central extended quandles", the chain map induces an isomorphism between their third homologies. For example, all Mochizuki's quandle 3-cocycles are shown to be derived from group cocycles of some non-abelian group. As an application, we calculate some $\Z$-equivariant parts of the Dijkgraaf-Witten invariants of some cyclic branched covering spaces, via some cocycle invariant of links.