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As a white pigment, titanium oxide is used for cosmetic application. This
oxide is well known to have the photo catalytic activity. Therefore, a certain
degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in
sunlight. In this work, titanium phosphates were prepared with titanium
chloride and sodium triphosphate in hydrothermal process as a novel white
pigment. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photo catalytic
activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained phosphates had
little photo catalytic activity. The particle size of phosphate pigments
consisted a normal distribution at 2 μm by the hydrothermal treatment for 4 and
8 hours. The slipping resistance of samples became small by the hydrothermal
This study examines how complex linguistic structures are acquired in child English as a second language. The spontaneous speech producing by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years and the development of complex syntactic structures containing subordinate clauses was compared with the acquisition of other English morphosyntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005). Although PT predicts that subordination is acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some of the subordinate constructions emerge at earlier stages in child ESL acquisition.
The After cancer resection including bone, recently, bone resected with cancer has been considered to be reusable. We newly examined superheated steam treatment for bone reuse and compared it to existing treatments. Forty male C3H/HeN mice were used to establish a model of mandible invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The mice were sacrificed to harvest the tumor invading mandible bone. The resected tumor with mandible bone was treated by one of four kinds of treatment, no treatment for the control, the Pasteur method, liquid nitrogen treatment, micro-wave treatment and superheated steam treatment. After each treatment, the resected bone was transplanted into a syn-geneic mouse back. Eight weeks after transplantation, the mice were sacrificed and evaluated pathologically. Grafted tumors showed recurrence: 7/7 in the control, 6/8 in the liquid nitrogen treatment, 1/8 the microwave treatment and 2/8 the superheated steam treatment groups. No recurrence, on the other hand, was observed in the Pasteur method (0/8). The Pasteur method is a good treatment to remove malignant cells.