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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 263 matches for " TM Akam "
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Antiplasmodial activities of some products from Turreanthus africanus (Meliaceae)
MN Ngemenya, TM Akam, JN Yong, P Tane, SNY Fanso- Free, K Berzins, VP Titanji
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: We investigated the antiplasmodial activity of some pure compounds of Turreanthus africanus (Meliaceae), a plant that is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria in Southwest Cameroon. A phytochemical analysis of the methylene chloride: methanol (1:1) extract of the seeds of the plant yielded seven compounds. Four of them, which were oils, were subjected to in vitro bioassays on Plasmodium falciparum F 32, chloroquine sensitive strain. Compound 1 (16-oxolabda-8 (17), 12(E)-dien-15-oic acid), showed the highest antiplasmodial activity, two others (methyl-14,15-epoxylabda-8 (17), 12(E)-diene-16-oate, and turreanin A), had moderate activity and one was inactive. These findings are consistent with the use of T. africanus in the traditional treatment of P. falciparum malaria. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 32-39
Hox go omics: insights from Drosophila into Hox gene targets
Anastasios Pavlopoulos, Michael Akam
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-3-208
Abstract: Hox genes are well known for their role in specifying segmental identities [1], a role highlighted by homeotic mutant flies with a leg in place of an antenna or four wings instead of two. Present in all bilaterian animals, Hox genes encode homeodomain transcription factors that operate in many different tissues and cell types, and modulate a wide range of cell responses by controlling the expression of subordinate target genes [2]. The complexity of the regulatory networks controlled by Hox genes, together with the short and degenerate DNA sites at which Hox proteins bind, have hampered the identification of their target genes [3]. Nevertheless, the identification of Hox-regulated gene networks is fundamental if we are to understand the developmental processes of morphogenesis and cell differentiation in animals, and in particular the evolution and functional diversification of serially homologous structures.Many groups have started to use microarray profiling to systematically detect genes differentially expressed as the result of the activity of Hox genes. The sensitivity of this technique for identifying biologically relevant targets of Hox genes has been questioned, however [4], as the effects of Hox gene function can be elicited locally, affecting only a small subset of the Hox-expressing cells at a given time [5]. Such responses might be undetectable because of their small contribution to the total transcript population. Furthermore, the interpretation of any experimental set-up involving misexpression of Hox genes is complicated by two factors: their extensive cross-regulation [6] and their concentration-dependent activity [7].Two recent papers by Hueber et al. [8] and Hersh et al. [9] exemplify this whole-genome quest for downstream targets of Hox gene function in Drosophila (Figure 1). The first group searched for Hox-regulated genes in the embryo by ubiquitously overexpressing each one of the Hox genes Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), Antennapedia
Diagnosis and treatment of heart failure in the community
TM Mathivha
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
Prevention of red cell lysis in artesunate-treated rats: A role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
TM Salman
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The effects of artesunate were investigated on red blood cell count and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in male rats. Twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats were control rats which received normal saline while group 2 rats were treated with artesunate orally for five (5) days. 2.90 mg/kg of artesunate was given on the first day of treatment and 1.45 mg/kg was given on the subsequent four days. The results showed that artesunate induced a 25- fold increase (p<0.001) in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity while there was no significant reduction in the red blood cell count. The results suggest a role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the prevention of lysis of the red blood cells that may result from treatment with artesunate.
HIV management in practice: South Africa has the largest HIV epidemic in the world and it is therefore imperative that all health care workers are knowledgeable about the management of HIV/AIDS
TM Rossouw
Continuing Medical Education , 2011,
Abstract:
Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area
Proebstle TM
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S18185
Abstract: in displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area Original Research (2361) Total Article Views Authors: Proebstle TM Published Date April 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 27 - 33 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S18185 Thomas M Proebstle Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Background: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles. Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area. Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9–4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0–8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.
Comparative analysis of profitability of NERICA rice and local rice varieties production in Chukun local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
TM Kudi
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2010,
Abstract: This study examines the costs and returns and the problems confronting rice production. One hundred and eighty (180) farmers were randomly selected from one thousand two hundred rice producers from two districts, namely Kujama and Kakau of Chukun LGA of Kaduna State. Data collection was done using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistic and budgeting technique were used to analyse the data. The costs and returns analysis show that labour and fertilizers inputs accounted for greater parts of the total variable costs incurred in both NERICA rice and local rice varieties and were represented by 73.99 and 52.75 percent respectively. The farm gate price of paddy rice ( N 80/kg) for NERICA and N 50/kg for local rice were used in estimating the revenue and comparing with the total variable costs to obtain the gross margin which measured the economic performance of the two rice varieties. The gross margin analysis shows that from one hectare of land cultivated, the total cost of production for NERICA rice and local rice were N116,638.10 and N85,803.45 and gross revenue of N351,280.00 and N157,500.00/ha respectively. Thus making a gross of margin of N234,641.90, and N71,699.00/ha respectively. The gross margin analysis shows that with adequate management, NERICA rice production is a more profitable venture. The major problems identified in rice production were inadequate improved seed varieties, bad road network,pests and diseases, lack of capital and storage facilities. This paper recommends that intensification of NERICA rice production will generate more returns to farmers than local rice. Therefore, farmers should be encouraged to invest their resources in the improved (NERICA rice) production for increase rice productivity which in turn will increase the farmers’ income and improve their standard of living.
Adipositas und die Entzündung des Fettgewebes
Stulnig TM
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel , 2009,
Abstract: Adipositas geht mit einer systemischen Entzündungsreaktion einher. Eine Reihe von epidemiologischen Studien hat nachgewiesen, dass erh hte zirkulierende Entzündungsmarker wie das hoch-sensitiv gemessene C-reaktive Protein (hsCRP) wesentlich zur Insulinresistenz sowie zur Entwicklung von Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 und kardiovaskul ren Erkrankungen beitragen. Die systemische Entzündungsreaktion bei Adipositas nimmt ihren Ausgang in erster Linie vom Fettgewebe. Dort kommt es zur Infiltration mit Entzündungszellen, wobei Makrophagen im Vordergrund stehen, aber auch T-Lymphozyten nachgewiesen wurden. Entzündungszellen werden durch Chemokine in das Fettgewebe gelockt. Als Ausl ser der Fettgewebsentzündung werden derzeit ver nderte N hrstoffflüsse im endoplasmatischen Retikulum der Adipozyten, die zu einer Stressreaktion führen, oxidativer Stress und Hypoxie diskutiert. Eine enge Interaktion von Entzündungszellen und Adipozyten ist für die verminderte Insulinwirkung im Fettgewebe von gro er Bedeutung. Durch die Freisetzung inflammatorischer Zytokine wird die Fettgewebsentzündung auch systemisch wirksam. Neue Therapiestrategien, die sich spezifisch gegen die Entzündungsreaktion bei Adipositas richten, k nnten wesentlich zur Verringerung der Morbidit t adip ser Patienten beitragen.
Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area
Proebstle TM
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2011,
Abstract: Thomas M ProebstleDepartment of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, GermanyBackground: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9–4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0–8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, fronto-glabellar contraction, skin displacement analysis, glabellar lines
Routine blood cultures in the management of community acquired pneumonia; is it necessary?
TM Ibrahim
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7408
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The role of blood cultures (BCs) in the management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has generated a lot of controversy among clinicians in recent times. The main objectives of this audit were to determine if BC results impact the choice of antibiotics, and hospital outcomes in CAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of adults with CAP treated in the ED of Goulbourn Valley Base Hospital, Shepparton in Australia from November 2010 to November 2011. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty five patients were treated for CAP during the period in review with a mean age of 67.09±19.82 yrs and male:female of 1.5:1. 277 sets of BCs were performed and only 2.2% of the cases had true positive BCs .87% of the total cost of performing these BCs was spent on those with negative cultres.15.1% of the cases had their antibiotics changed during their hospitalization but the results of the BCs had no impact on the antibiotic change. Even though not statistically significant true positive BCs was associated with prolong length of hospital stay (7.6 ± 9.39 days vs 4.89 ± 3.24 days, p=0.44), and duration of IV antibiotic use (4.8±3.27 days vs 3.58±1.97 days, p=0.39). But the case fatality rate was much lower in those with positive BCs, (0 vs 5.7%,p< 0.05). Tachycardia (>120.4±12.46 bpm), neutrophilia (15.0± 8.16 /ul), and high CRP (326.4±146.32 ug/l) were predictors of true positive BCs. CONCLUSIONS: Routine BCs in the management of CAP is not cost-effective with large portion of the cost spent on cultures that returned negative result .Therefore it use show be limited to those likely to return positive cultures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7408 Int J Infect Microbiol 2012;1(1):54-57
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