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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308 matches for " TJ Mmushi "
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In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea extracts against pathogenic yeasts
P Masoko, TJ Mmushi, MM Mogashoa, MP Mokgotho, LJ Mampuru, RL Howard
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea which is used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was evaluated against three yeasts; Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodoturula mucilaginosa. Barks of S. birrea were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and ethanol and tested against these three yeasts. The antifungal assay was performed by the microdilution technique and bioautography. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the phytocompounds of the extracts as well as to assay the plant for antioxidant compounds. More compounds with antioxidant activity were observed in polar separation system, ethyl cetate:methanol:water (EMW). All test organisms were resistant against all non-polar extracts. Acetone, ethanol and methanol S. birrea extracts had average MIC values of 0.39, 0.22 and 0.27 mg/ml, respectively. C. albidus was the most sensitive organism with an average MIC value of 0.17 mg/ml. Average total activity was highest for methanol (387 ml/g) followed by ethanol (363 ml/g) and acetone (299 ml/g) bark extracts. Acetone and methanolic bark extracts were more active in EMW system at Rf values of 0.07, 0.32 and 0.70 against C. parapsilosis. The results showed that the plant could be further explored for possible antifungal agents and provides preliminary scientific validation of the traditional medicinal use of this plant.
Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?
TJ Cole
BMC Pediatrics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-4-6
Abstract: Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both in original (kg/m2) and standard deviation (SD) score units, are studied in five hypothetical subjects. Two aspects of the body mass index curve, the body mass index centile and the rate of body mass index centile crossing, determine a child's age at rebound. A high centile and upward centile crossing are both associated separately with an early rebound, while a low centile and/or downward centile crossing correspond to a late rebound. Early adiposity rebound is a risk factor for later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later in childhood and adulthood. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect". The association of centile crossing with later obesity is statistical not physiological, and it applies at all ages not just at rebound, so adiposity rebound cannot be considered a critical period for future obesity. Body mass index centile crossing is a more direct indicator of the underlying drive to fatness.An early age at adiposity rebound predicts later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. Body mass index centile crossing is more direct than the timing of adiposity rebound for predicting later fatness.There is continuing interest and concern about the worldwide epidemic of child obesity, particularly its role in the development of later obesity and adult chronic disease. [1,2] The adiposity rebound is the second rise in adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), which occurs between 3 and 7 years of age in individual children. [3] It corresponds to fat cells starting to increase in number after an earlier phase of increasing then decreasing in size. [4] In an important paper Rolland-Cachera [3] noted that the
Problems in estimating maternal effects
TJ Teehan
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1980, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-12-1-116a
Book Reviews: Conflict resolution in the 21st century: Principles, methods and approaches
TJ Kirkwood
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2011,
Abstract: Conflict resolution in the 21st century: Principles, methods and approaches Bercovitch, Jacob and Richard Jackson 2009 Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press 2009, 226 pages ISBN 9780472050628
Philosophy of adult education and the implication for agricultural extension service
TJ Odeyemi
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2003,
Abstract: Adult Education and Agricultural extension play complementary roles. This is why Adult education is a prerequisite for agricultural extension. The paper highlights the relationhip between adult education and extension using the philosophy as a fulcrum between both. The paper further reiterated the need for sound methods, resources and approaches which the extension agent who is a major stakeholder in extension work would have to put in place when he is introducing an innovation. It also includes, the covert or overt expressions he needs to exhibit to facilitate learning and acceptance as expressed in the level of adoption of innovation, through which a better standard of living and true development can be achieved for the people. (J Agric & Soc Res:2003 3(2): 55-63)
Drama as a Tool for Social Commentary: An Example of Alex Asigbo’s The Reign of Pascal Amusu.
TJ Okeke
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2010,
Abstract: Drama has been widely acclaimed as a positive medium for mirroring society hence the popular cant that ‘drama is a representation of life’. So, while drama entertains it also teaches and informs. This powerful attribute of drama has been employed by playwrights over the ages to make constructive commentaries on the happenings in society and thus affect some positive changes in man and his environment. This paper attempts an analysis of the playwright’s use of drama to make comments on society using Alex Asigbo’s ‘The Reign of Paschal Amusu’ as an example. We shall aim at exploring the use of drama to inform, educate and arouse the consciousness of individuals in society with a view of making them aware of their responsibilities as members of society whose duty it is to take their destinies in their hands and make the world a better place.
Taxing the rich at higher rates in South Africa?
TJ Steenekamp
Southern African Business Review , 2012,
Abstract: Long-run data on changes in the share of top income earners in South Africa shows that the incomes of the top income groups have become less concentrated for most of the twentieth century, but have become more skewed in the last decade. Compared to a selection of developing and developed countries, the tax burden is already at a high level, which constrains further exploitation of the tax system for revenue purposes. The purpose of this study is to consider the implications of taxing the rich in South Africa more heavily to address large (taxable) income inequality. It is estimated that a 10 per cent increase in the top marginal tax rate would result in taxable income ranging from gains of approximately R2 billion to losses of R340 million. Although these results are tentative, they show that taxing the rich at higher rates may not produce the revenue windfall expected. The efficiency loss associated with an increase of one Rand in revenues is estimated at between R0.39 and R3.16. An alternative to taxing the rich at higher marginal tax rates could be reducing tax expenditures that are disproportionately utilised by the rich and taxing the process whereby the rich become rich.
The progressivity of personal income tax in South Africa since 1994 and directions for tax reform
TJ Steenekamp
Southern African Business Review , 2012,
Abstract: The imperative to reduce poverty levels in South Africa requires not less but more public expenditure and probably higher tax levels. The purpose of this study is, firstly, to examine the impact of personal income tax reforms since 1994 on the tax structure and its scope to meet the challenges of rising needs and equity. Secondly, the study aims to provide a broad outline of personal income tax approaches that are globally considered as alternative reform options. The study finds that in South Africa, direct taxes as a percentage of total tax revenue increased in importance between 1993/94 and 2010/11. The personal income tax burden for wage earners in South Africa has remained fairly constant since 1995. The personal income tax structure is progressive, but there was a declining trend in progressivity between 1994 and 2009. Increasing personal income tax rates is constrained by low company tax rates, possible increased efficiency costs and ‘herd behaviour’. The income tax system in South Africa conforms to a semi-comprehensive income tax system. The tax reform option that holds the most promise for developing countries (and South Africa) is the dual income tax system.
Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy metabolism of the anaerobic archaeon methanosarcina semesiae sp. Nov.
TJ Lyimo
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2008,
Abstract: The methyl group transfer from dimethylsulfide (DMS), trimethylamine and methanol to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were investigated from cell extracts of Methanosarcina semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. The extracts from cells grown on DMS exhibited methanogenic activity exclusively with DMS and methanethiol. Likewise when cells were pre-grown on trimethylamine or methanol the extracts only produced methane from the respective metaboilic substrate. Dimethylsulfide:methyl-coenzyme M transferase activity was dependent on ATP, but hydrogen did not stimulate activity. The fact that ATP could be replaced by the reductant Ti(III)-citrate indicates that reductive activation of methyl transfer reaction in DMS conversion proceeds in a manner similar to methyltransferases involved in methanol and trimethylamine conversion, but with a different reduction source. This source appears to be limited since sometimes the cell extracts were totally inactive in the presence of ATP, while still being activated with Ti(III)-citrate. It was concluded that enzymes involved in methyl transfer reactions are specific for each substrate; DMS, trimethylamine and methanol and have to be induced. Further investigations are recommended to corroborate the current study.
The effect of antibiotic, disinfectant and formaldehyde gas on hatchability of broiler eggs
TJ Kaudla
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 1999,
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