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In vitro antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Ficus religiosa (Linn.)
G.Ramakrishnaiah *1, T.Hariprasad2
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa) and one fungi (Aspergillus niger). The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm) followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm). Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.
IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND BARK EXTRACTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA (Linn.)
Gampa Ramakrishnaiah,T. Hariprasad
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa) and one fungi (Aspergillus niger). The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm) followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm). Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.
FII Ownership in Indian Equity Securities: The Firm-Level Determinants  [PDF]
B. Hariprasad
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65095
Abstract: This paper studies the stock ownership in Indian firms by Foreign Institutional Investors during 2013 to 2015. Several firm-level characteristics are used to measure the extent to which information asymmetry affects the level of FII ownership in these firms. The analysis reveals that the firm-size and the book-to-market ratio are significant variables in selecting the equity investments by this investor group. There is not much empirical support for beta or the export ratio as determinants of firm-level ownership. In their holdings of large-firm stocks, there is a strong evidence that FIIs prefer to hold more shares of high exports firms.
Plant health improvement by Bacillus subtilis strain GBO3 in tomato against bacterial spot disease
S. UMESHA* P. HARIPRASAD
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Seed bacterization with Bacillus subtilis strain GBO3 showed increased plant growth and reduced the bacterial leaf spot in tomato. Seedlings raised from seeds bacterized with GBO3 showed increased root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were found increased in plants raised from bacterized seeds and reached their peak at 48 hours after pathogen inoculation (hpi). Similarly, phenolics accumulation was reached their peak at 96 hpi. The rate of reduction in the bacterial spot disease incidence in plants raised from bacterized seeds was directly proportional to the increased levels of PAL, PPO and phenol contents.
A Novel Regiospecific Synthesis of 1-Chloro-2-arylcyclohexenes
Lokesh Krishnappa,HariPrasad Suresh
Organic Chemistry International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/871595
Abstract: An efficient high yielding chemoselective synthesis of eleven novel 1-chloro-2-arylcyclohexenes employing the Suzuki cross coupling of 1-bromo-2-chlorocyclohexene with eleven different aryl boronic acids and Pd(dppf) catalyst is reported. 1. Introduction Cross-coupling reactions of unsaturated carbon centres bearing halogens/triflates with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by palladium metal complexes have become a powerful tool in organic synthesis for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. One of the important cross-coupling reactions in this genre is the Suzuki reaction [1–4]. These organopalladium complex catalyzed couplings of unsaturated halides with boronic acids/esters have been employed in key steps to form a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and natural products [5–10]. 1,2-Dihalocycloalkenes are precursors to cycloalkynes [11, 12]. However, there are very few reports for the conversion of 1,2-dihalocycloalkenes to substituted 1-halo-2-arylcycloalkenes. One report shows the chemoselective cross coupling of 2-bromo-3-chloronorbornadiene to 2-chloro-3-aryl-norbornadiene [13]. In this regard, the Suzuki coupling reaction of cyclohexenyl bromides with arylboronic acids is still almost unexplored. A recent report shows its importance in the synthesis of polysubstituted phenol derivatives [14]. Our laboratory is involved in the synthesis and reactions of some novel cyclic vinyl silanes. We employ the Wurtz-Fittig coupling reaction of corresponding cyclic vinyl halide with sodium and chlorotrimethylsilane in suitable solvent to prepare the cyclic vinylsilanes. Using the Wurtz-Fittig reaction, we have been able to synthesize a large number of simple and substituted cyclic vinylsilanes [15–19]. The organosilicon compounds are anionic synthons serving as the starting materials in the total synthesis of natural products [20–23]. Cyclic vinyl halides and 1,2-dihalocycloalkenes serve as precursors to the cyclic vinylsilanes. There are several protocols for the preparation of cyclic vinyl halides and 1,2-dihalocycloalkenes [24]. The protocols for 1,2-dihalocycloalkenes normally afford the two halogen atoms symmetrically attached to the carbon-carbon double bond [25, 26]. In comparison to the preparation of symmetrical 1,2-dihalocycloalkenes, there exist very few protocols for the synthesis of unsymmetrical 1,2-dihalocycloakenes especially 1-bromo-2-chlorocycloalkenes [27–31]. We had earlier adopted the addition reaction of bromine chloride to 1-chlorocyclopentene followed by dehydrochlorination for the synthesis of 1-bromo-2-chlorocyclopentene [25]. In this paper,
Spectral Properties of Tridiagonal k-Toeplitz Matrices
Hariprasad M.,Murugesan Venkatapathi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We derive the spectral properties of tridiagonal k-Toeplitz matrices in generality i.e. with non symmetric complex entries and any periodicity k. Previous work has highlighted some special spectral properties of real symmetric tridiagonal k-Toeplitz matrices and note that all square matrices have similarity transformation to tridiagonal form. Toeplitz matrices are used in convolution, discrete transforms and lumped physical systems, and it can be shown that every matrix is a product of Toeplitz matrices. We begin with numerical results of spectra of some special k-Toeplitz matrices as a motivation. This is followed by a derivation of spectral properties of a general tridiagonal k-Toeplitz matrix using three term recurrence relations and C - R,C - I kth order polynomial mappings. These relations establish a support for the limiting eigenvalue distribution of a tridiagonal Toeplitz matrix which has dimensions much larger than k. Numerical examples are used to graphically demonstrate theorems. As an addendum, we derive expressions for O(k) computation of the determinant of tridiagonal k-Toeplitz matrices of any dimension.
Upper bound on neutrino mass based on T2K neutrino timing measurements
T2K Collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment consists of a muon neutrino beam, produced at the J-PARC accelerator, a near detector complex and a large 295km distant far detector. The present work utilizes the T2K event timing measurements at the near and far detectors to study neutrino time of flight as function of derived neutrino energy. Under the assumption of a relativistic relation between energy and time of flight, constraints on the neutrino rest mass can be derived. The sub-GeV neutrino beam in conjunction with timing precision of order tens of ns provide sensitivity to neutrino mass in the few MeV/$c^2$ range. We study the distribution of relative arrival times of muon and electron neutrino candidate events at the T2K far detector as a function of neutrino energy. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the mixture of neutrino mass eigenstates represented in the data sample is found to be m$_{\nu}^2 < 5.6 \, {\mathrm MeV^2/}c^4$.
AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK DAN FRAKSI EKSTRAK BIJI ATUNG (Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk.) [Antioxidant Activities of Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk Extracts and their Fractions]
Dewi Sarastani 1),Soewarno T. Soekarto 2),Tien R. Muchtadi 2),Dedi Fardiaz 2)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2002,
Abstract: The seed of Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk was extracted with non polar solvent (hexane) and or polar solvent (ethanol). Antioxidative activity of extracts was measured by rates of carotene bleaching in the coupled oxidation of linoleic acid and b-carotene. Ethanolic-Hexanoic Extract (EHE) of the seed was found to possess the highest antioxidative activity. Furthermore, EHE was fractionated by silica column chromatography and eight major fractions were isolated according to UV absorption. Antioxidative activity of these fractions was evaluated in a b-carotene-linoleate system. Fractions III , I , and II showed the major activity, but fractions I and II have the best value of relative capacity, so they were chosen for further identification
Systematic Uncertainties at the T2K Experiment for Oscillation Measurements
A. Kaboth for the T2K Collaboration
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with the ability to measure precisely $\nu_{\mu}\rightarrow\nu_e$ and $\nu_{\mu}\rightarrow\nu_{\mu}$ oscillations. Control of systematic uncertainties-dominated by flux and cross section uncertainties-is critical for the precision of these measurements. An analysis of charged current $\nu_{\mu}$ interactions at the T2K near detector significantly reduces these uncertainties, from 26.9% to 3.0% for the current $\nu_{\mu}\rightarrow\nu_e$ measurement at T2K.
Latest oscillation results from T2K
Marat Khabibullin,for the T2K Collaboration
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The latest oscillation results obtained in the off-axis accelerator neutrino experiment T2K are presented. In the data sample, corresponding to 1.43 x 10^20 protons on target, 6 electron neutrino candidate events pass the selection criteria, while the expected number of background events for sin^2 2\theta_{13}=0 is 1.5 \pm 0.3 (syst.). The probability to observe six or more candidate events due to background is 0.7%, equivalent to 2.5-sigma significance. In the muon neutrino disappearance analysis the obtained atmospheric oscillation parameters are consistent with results from the Super-Kamiokande and MINOS experiments.
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