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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117817 matches for " T. Harinarayana "
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Energy Efficient Air Conditioning System Using Geothermal Cooling-Solar Heating in Gujarat, India  [PDF]
Sneha Shahare, T. Harinarayana
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.41004
Abstract: It is well known that one unit of electrical energy saved is equal to more than two units produced. One way of economizing the power is utilization of energy efficient systems at all locations. In the present study, the air conditioning system is analysed and an innovative way is suggested. We use natural low temperature of shallow sub surface (1 - 3 m) of the earth—geothermal cooling system. It is known that majority of the households and the apartment complexes in India have two tanks for water storage. One is the underground water sump and the other is the overhead water tank. In our study, we use these two water storage systems for space cooling during summer and also for heating during winter. The main aim of our paper is air-conditioning of the space in an economic way to save electricity. It is based on a simple idea of transferring the low temperature from underground water sump to the room in the house using water as a mode of transport. Since India is a tropical country located at low latitude, most of the year, the air temperature is high and demands space cooling. However, for a couple of months during severe winter months (Dec.-Jan.) at Ahmedabad, heating of the space is required. For heating the space, we suggest to use the well-known solar water heater. Effective use of heat exchanger is shown through computation, modelling schemes and lab experiment. We recommend geothermal cooling for 10 months in a year and solar hot water system during 2 months of winter. It is observed that the ambient air temperature of 35°C - 40°C in the room can be brought down to 26°C without much consumption of electricity. In a similar manner, the room temperature at night (13°C) during winter in Ahmedabad can be increased to 27°C through circulation of water from solar water heater in the heat exchanger.
Solar Energy Generation Potential Estimation in India and Gujarat, Andhra, Telangana States  [PDF]
T. Harinarayana, K. Jaya Kashyap
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.511025
Abstract: It is well known that the rampant increase for the demand of electricity and rapid depletion of the fossil fuels has called for immediate response in the direction of energy sufficiency. To accomplish this, one of the important tasks is to identify the locations of high potential for renewable energy generation. It is a well-established fact that solar energy proved to be the most sought after source for energy generation. Although, solar energy potential maps of India have been prepared based on solar irradiation maps in the earlier studies, the present research study has been carried out with a focused attention directly on solar energy generation considering various parameters. In this work it is shown that solar energy generation does not depend on solar radiation alone at a location. Instead, there are various other factors that influence the energy generation. Some of them are ambient temperature, wind velocity and other parameters like weather and topographic conditions. In this study the locations with high and low solar energy generation potential in India have been identified through systematic analysis by computing the solar energy parameters at every grid point (1° × 1°). The work has been extended with more detailed study for Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and the newly formed Telangana states. The data points considered for the states are 0.25° × 0.25° having resulted in adding more number of locations. Our results indicate that the total annual energy generation in India varies from 510,000 KWH to 800,000 KWH per acre of land. The least energy generation location pertains to the eastern parts of Arunachal Pradesh and eastern part of Assam and the highest annual solar energy generation has been identified in the eastern parts of Jammu & Kashmir and eastern part of Uttarakhand.
Solar Thermal Energy Generation Potential in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu States, India  [PDF]
C. Nagarjuna Reddy, T. Harinarayana
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.713056
Abstract: Government of India has come out with an ambitious target of 100 GW of using solar energy alone by the year 2022. To reach this target, innovative ideas are required to use the solar energy more effectively. For solar electricity generation, mainly two types of technologies are presently in use, namely, solar PV and solar thermal. Being a tropical country, India has large solar PV and solar thermal energy. More research is required on economic aspects to make the solar thermal competitive to solar PV. Towards this direction, in our present study we have simulated a solar thermal power plant using Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) technology and normalized with 1 MW solar thermal power plant at Gurgaon near New Delhi. Through simulation, we have extended our study and computed the electricity generation possible at different locations of India. For this purpose with 1? × 1?spacing, computations have been carried out at 296 locations. The work is further extended for more detailed study at two representative states, namely, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. In these two states, closer data points with 0.25? × 0.25? spacing have been considered at 273 locations for Gujarat and 197 locations for Tamil Nadu. Our results indicate a large potential of electricity generation using solar thermal energy in southern states of India, namely, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, southern and western part of Andhra Pradesh and eastern part of Maharashtra. Good potential has also been observed in eastern parts of Gujarat and parts of Madhya Pradesh and eastern part of Rajasthan. The annual potential ranges from 1800 MWh to as much as 2600 MWh. Major parts of northern states, for example Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir have medium range potential. Here, the annual potential ranges from 1000 to 1500 MWh. Poor range of potential is observed towards eastern parts of India and north eastern states. Here, the electricity generation potential ranges from 600 to 1200 MWh. Our results are useful to solar thermal developer and decision managers.
Basement Configuration from Magnetotelluric Studies in Bhuj Earthquake Epicentral Zone, Gujarat, India  [PDF]
S. Kareemunnisa Begum, T. Harinarayana
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2016.53015
Abstract: A wide band (1000 - 0.001 Hz) magnetotelluric study has been taken up in the Bhuj earthquake epicentral zone and 21 sites have been occupied along three profiles during March-April 2001 to understand the deep structure of the region. In addition the region surrounding Bhuj has been probed earlier with number of MT profiles and the subsurface structure is well constrained from hydrocarbon exploration point of view besides seismotectonic studies. In the present study, the results obtained along 130 km long profile from Mundra to Rapar oriented in NE-SW direction passing through the epicenter are presented considering these two databases. The subsurface structure has shown interesting correlation with the surface deformations, a new basement configuration and associated seismotectonics of the region. Our main result is relating the basement configuration and surface ruptures.
Development of Geotourism in Kutch Region, Gujarat, India: An Innovative Approach  [PDF]
K. Swarna, S. K. Biswas, T. Harinarayana
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412157

Geotourism in Kutch has an exemplary potential of being designated as a site for perfect establishment of a National Geopark. The paper is aimed to describe the geological significance of the sites with basic concept of creation of geoparks and promote geotourism. The financial, infrastructural aspects, deliverables to the society are presented primarily focusing on the local economic and sustainable development of Kutch. The need for development of infrastructure for geotourism is urgently required as the rare geological heritage of Kutch region is eroding and being destroyed due to manmade activities.

Solar Energy Generation Using Agriculture Cultivated Lands  [PDF]
T. Harinarayana, K. Sri Venkata Vasavi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.52004

Generation of electricity using solar PV is picking up in India in a big way in recent years. It needs a clear direction such that it can optimally be utilized and the benefits, without being concentrated in a few locations, can reach the majority of poor population as well. Indian farmers, for the last few decades are affected in terms of availability of electrical power. The present study suggests the use of fertile and cultivated land with about 5 m elevated structure with solar panels. It creates shade on the crops. In the present study, the shade effect on the crops below the structure has been examined systematically through modeling studies. Different solar panel design configurations are suggested such that the crops or plants below, on the ground surface, can also be grown without any reduction in their yield. The effect of the elevated structure on the neighboring lands is also examined. It is shown that the present concept can easily be implemented in India, perhaps in the world, at all the locations such that power can be generated using farmer’s own land for his own benefit, perhaps with some profit to him. The present concept, if implemented, also reduces the huge cost involved in establishing the network of transmission and distribution lines.

Optimization in Site Selection of Wind Turbine for Energy Using Fuzzy Logic System and GIS—A Case Study for Gujarat  [PDF]
Kunal Kumar Borah, Souvnik Roy, T. Harinarayana
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2013.24015

The development of new wind energy project requires studying of many parameters to achieve maximum benefits at the cost of minimum environmental impacts. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), an analytical framework has been developed in this paper with fuzzy logic to evaluate the suitable site for turbines for optimum energy output. The criteria for suitable site for energy optimization are environmental, physical and human factors. The present study helps to assess the appropriate sites for the wind turbines in Gujarat. The result obtained from the study conveys the suitability of the development of wind turbines along the western parts of Gujarat. The suggested model could be used for the future site selection of the wind turbine which in turn could be of orientation for energy planners and decision makers.

Solar PV Energy Generation Map of Karnataka, India  [PDF]
Jaymin Gajjar, Sagar Agravat, T. Harinarayana
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2015.612027
Abstract: A massive plan has been drawn by the Karnataka state of India to initiate several solar power plants at different locations. In view of this, it is of great help to have reliable estimation on solar PV energy generation. Four solar PV power plants in Karnataka state are fully operational installed by Karnataka Power Corporation Limited (KPCL). They are located at Kolar, Belgaum and Raichur with 3 MW capacity each and at Mandya with 5 MW capacity. In the present study, using ground mounted weather station data solar power generation has been estimated and compared with actual generation for two consecutive years of 2012 and 2013 for one location initially, namely 3 MW Kolar Solar PV Plant. The procedure is repeated for rest of the plants. The simulated results have been corrected with ground mounted weather data. After such corrections, the simulated results have been compared with the actual energy generation of the four plants. Results showed a close match with a small deviation of about 5%. The model then applied throughout the state for every 0.25 degree station intervals in a grid manner. The annual energy generation obtained for the state varies from 1.53 to 1.73 MUs/MW. Central and south eastern part of the state are found to yield significantly higher solar power generation as compared to the northern part and south western part of Karnataka. Interestingly, north western part of Kodagu district has shown the least potential of 1.53 MUs/MW as compared to other parts. This can be attributed mainly due to low irradiation and high temperature condition at this location. The energy generated map from our study will be useful and helpful for both solar developers and decision makers of Karnataka state.
Modelling of Solar Thermal Power Plant Using Parabolic Trough Collector  [PDF]
Jignasha Bhutka, Jaymin Gajjar, T. Harinarayana
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.48002
Abstract: The target of the National Solar Mission is to build up India as a worldwide pioneer in solar energy generation. Solar power can be transmitted through grid either from solar photovoltaic or solar thermal technology. As compared to solar photovoltaic, solar thermal installations are less studied, especially regarding energy estimation and performance analysis. For estimating the potential of CSP plants, it is planned to simulate a power plant. We have marginally modified the design of 1 MW operational power plant installed at Gurgaon using Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) technology. The results are compared with the expected output of Gurgaon power plant and also 50 MW power plant at Rajasthan. Our results have closely matched with a small deviation of 3.1% and 3.6% for Gurgaon and Rajasthan plants, respectively. Our developed model is also validated with 18 different solar power plants in different parts of the world by slightly modifying the parameters according to the plant capacity without changing major changes to the plant design. Difference between our results and the expected energy generation varied from 0.4% to 13.7% with an average deviation of 6.8%. As our results show less than 10% deviation as compared to the actual generation, an attempt has been made here to estimate the potential for the entire nation. For this modelling has been carried out for every grid station of 0.25° × 0.25° interval in India. Our results show that annual solar thermal power plant of 1 MWe capacity potential varies from 900 to 2700 MWh. We have also compared our results with previous studies and discussed.
Wind Energy Generation and Assessment of Resources in India  [PDF]
Vishakha Tank, Jignasha Bhutka, T. Harinarayana
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.410002
Abstract: The gap between energy demand and its generation is constantly widening. People have started giving more emphasis on renewable sources of energy. This paper presents the estimation of potential for wind energy generation maps based on fixed wind turbine capacity. Although wind energy has developed substantially in recent years, we have only wind speed and wind potential density maps. Our attempt here is to generate wind energy generation potential maps. Major step in achieving this goal is modeling of wind energy conversion system using TRNSYS software. The model consists of three main components namely the weather, the turbines and energy conversion parameters. The weather data are provided from the meteorological database, namely Meteonorm. The simulated output is compared with actual wind generation of wind farms. After comparing our model results with the existing wind energy generation data, we have extended to compute the wind energy generation for all locations in India. For simulation, 4691 locations are identified considering 0.25° × 0.25° interval. The energy generation simulated data are compiled and developed into maps that are useful to all wind energy developers. The data generated and presented in the form of maps are for all the 30 states of India.
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