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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117887 matches for " T. Boxhammer "
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Impact of ocean acidification and elevated temperatures on early juveniles of the polar shelled pteropod Limacina helicina: mortality, shell degradation, and shell growth
S. Lischka, J. Büdenbender, T. Boxhammer,U. Riebesell
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2011,
Abstract: Due to their aragonitic shell, thecosome pteropods may be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This applies specifically to species inhabiting Arctic surface waters that are projected to become temporarily and locally undersaturated with respect to aragonite as early as 2016. This study investigated the effects of rising partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and elevated temperature on pre-winter juveniles of the polar pteropod Limacina helicina. After a 29 day experiment in September/October 2009 at three different temperatures and under pCO2 scenarios projected for this century, mortality, shell degradation, shell diameter and shell increment were investigated. Temperature and pCO2 had a significant effect on mortality, but temperature was the overriding factor. Shell diameter, shell increment and shell degradation were significantly impacted by pCO2 but not by temperature. Mortality was 46% higher at 8 °C than at in situ temperature (3 °C), and 14% higher at 1100 μatm than at 230 μatm. Shell diameter and increment were reduced by 10 and 12% at 1100 μatm and 230 μatm, respectively, and shell degradation was 41% higher at elevated compared to ambient pCO2. We conclude that pre-winter juveniles will be negatively affected by both rising temperature and pCO2 which may result in a possible decline in abundance of the overwintering population, the basis for next year's reproduction.
Impact of ocean acidification and elevated temperatures on early juveniles of the polar shelled pteropod Limacina helicina: mortality, shell degradation, and shell growth
S. Lischka,J. Büdenbender,T. Boxhammer,U. Riebesell
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-7-8177-2010
Abstract: Due to their aragonitic shell thecosome pteropods may be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This applies specifically to species inhabiting Arctic surface waters that are projected to become locally undersaturated with respect to aragonite as early as 2016. This study investigated the effects of rising pCO2 partial pressures and elevated temperature on pre-winter juveniles of the polar pteropod Limacina helicina. After a 29 days experiment in September/October 2009 at three different temperatures and under pCO2 scenarios projected for this century, mortality, shell degradation, shell diameter and shell increment were investigated. Temperature and pCO2 had a significant effect on mortality, but temperature was the overriding factor. Shell diameter, shell increment and shell degradation were significantly impacted by pCO2 but not by temperature. Mortality was 46% higher at 8 °C compared to 3 °C (in situ), and 14% higher at 1100 μatm CO2 as compared to 230 μatm CO2. Shell diameter and increment were reduced by 10% and 12% at 1100 μatm CO2 as compared to 230 μatm CO2, respectively, and shell degradation was 41% higher at elevated compared to ambient pCO2 partial pressures. We conclude that pre-winter juveniles will be negatively affected by both rising temperature and pCO2 which may result in a possible abundance decline of the overwintering population, the basis for next year's reproduction.
Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research
U. Riebesell,J. Czerny,K. von Br?ckel,T. Boxhammer
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-12985-2012
Abstract: One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between single species laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile, sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS). The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights). It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (~50–75 m3 in volume) without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i) minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii) allow for extended experimental duration, (iii) precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv) determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v) perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78° 56.2′ N, 11° 53.6′ E) in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA), focused on the effects of ocean acidification on a natural plankton community and its impacts on biogeochemical cycling and air/sea exchange of climate relevant gases. This manuscript describes the mesocosm hardware, its deployment and handling, CO2 manipulation, sampling and cleaning, including some further modifications conducted based on the experiences gained during this study.
Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord
B. Niehoff, T. Schmithüsen, N. Knüppel, M. Daase, J. Czerny,T. Boxhammer
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013,
Abstract: The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world ocean. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated CO2 are still lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 μatm to 1420 μatm. Vertical net hauls were taken weekly over about one month with an Apstein net (55 μm mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analysed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (Cirripedia, Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, and Decapoda) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms and the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. Also, we did not find significant relationships between the pCO2 level and the abundance of single taxa. Changes in heterogeneous communities are, however, difficult to detect, and the exposure to elevated pCO2 was relatively short. We therefore suggest that future mesocosm experiments should be run for longer periods.
Element budgets in an Arctic mesocosm CO2 perturbation study
J. Czerny,K. G. Schulz,T. Boxhammer,R. G. J. Bellerby
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-11885-2012
Abstract: Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining the temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air/sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification using KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation) all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down some of the mentioned uncertainties. Water column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic constituents were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution, as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in 2 of the 3 experimental phases but did not significantly affect particle elemental composition. Enhanced carbon consumption appears to result in accumulation of dissolved organic compounds under nutrient recycling summer conditions. This carbon over-consumption effect becomes evident from budget calculations, but was too small to be resolved by direct measurements of dissolved organics. The out-competing of large diatoms by comparatively small algae in nutrient uptake caused reduced production rates under future ocean CO2 conditions in the end of the experiment. This CO2 induced shift away from diatoms towards smaller phytoplankton and enhanced cycling of dissolved organics was pushing the system towards a retention type food chain with overall negative effects on export potential.
A 13C labelling study on carbon fluxes in Arctic plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels
A. de Kluijver, K. Soetaert, J. Czerny, K. G. Schulz, T. Boxhammer, U. Riebesell,J. J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013,
Abstract: The effect of CO2 on carbon fluxes (production, consumption, and export) in Arctic plankton communities was investigated during the 2010 EPOCA (European project on Ocean Acidification) mesocosm study off Ny lesund, Svalbard. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to nine mesocosms with a range in pCO2 (185 to 1420 μatm) to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton, bacterial and zooplankton consumers, and export. A nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus model amended with 13C dynamics was constructed and fitted to the data to quantify uptake rates and carbon fluxes in the plankton community. The plankton community structure was characteristic for a post-bloom situation and retention food web and showed high bacterial production (~31% of primary production), high abundance of mixotrophic phytoplankton, low mesozooplankton grazing (~6% of primary production) and low export (~7% of primary production). Zooplankton grazing and export of detritus were sensitive to CO2: grazing decreased and export increased with increasing pCO2. Nutrient addition halfway through the experiment increased the export, but not the production rates. Although mixotrophs showed initially higher production rates with increasing CO2, the overall production of POC (particulate organic carbon) after nutrient addition decreased with increasing CO2. Interestingly, and contrary to the low nutrient situation, much more material settled down in the sediment traps at low CO2. The observed CO2 related effects potentially alter future organic carbon flows and export, with possible consequences for the efficiency of the biological pump.
Technical Note: A mobile sea-going mesocosm system – new opportunities for ocean change research
U. Riebesell, J. Czerny, K. von Br ckel, T. Boxhammer, J. Büdenbender, M. Deckelnick, M. Fischer, D. Hoffmann, S. A. Krug, U. Lentz, A. Ludwig, R. Muche,K. G. Schulz
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013,
Abstract: One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to close the gap between small-scale laboratory experiments and observational and correlative approaches applied in field surveys. Existing pelagic mesocosm systems are stationary and/or restricted to well-protected waters. To allow mesocosm experimentation in a range of hydrographic conditions and in areas considered most sensitive to ocean change, we developed a mobile sea-going mesocosm facility, the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS). The KOSMOS platform, which can be transported and deployed by mid-sized research vessels, is designed for operation in moored and free-floating mode under low to moderate wave conditions (up to 2.5 m wave heights). It encloses a water column 2 m in diameter and 15 to 25 m deep (~50–75 m3 in volume) without disrupting the vertical structure or disturbing the enclosed plankton community. Several new developments in mesocosm design and operation were implemented to (i) minimize differences in starting conditions between mesocosms, (ii) allow for extended experimental duration, (iii) precisely determine the mesocosm volume, (iv) determine air–sea gas exchange, and (v) perform mass balance calculations. After multiple test runs in the Baltic Sea, which resulted in continuous improvement of the design and handling, the KOSMOS platform successfully completed its first full-scale experiment in the high Arctic off Svalbard (78°56.2′ N, 11°53.6′ E) in June/July 2010. The study, which was conducted in the framework of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA), focused on the effects of ocean acidification on a natural plankton community and its impacts on biogeochemical cycling and air–sea exchange of climate-relevant gases. This manuscript describes the mesocosm hardware, its deployment and handling, CO2 manipulation, sampling and cleaning, including some further modifications conducted based on the experiences gained during this study.
Restoration of Sensitivity in Chemo — Resistant Glioma Cells by Cold Atmospheric Plasma
Julia K?ritzer, Veronika Boxhammer, Andrea Sch?fer, Tetsuji Shimizu, Tobias G. Kl?mpfl, Yang-Fang Li, Christian Welz, Sabina Schwenk-Zieger, Gregor E. Morfill, Julia L. Zimmermann, Jürgen Schlegel
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064498
Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults. Despite multimodal treatments including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy the prognosis remains poor and relapse occurs regularly. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown to improve the overall survival in patients with malignant gliomas, especially in tumors with methylated promoter of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance towards TMZ makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant gliomas. Cold atmospheric plasma is a new auspicious candidate in cancer treatment. In the present study we demonstrate the anti-cancer properties of different dosages of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) both in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant cells by proliferation assay, immunoblotting, cell cycle analysis, and clonogenicity assay. Importantly, CAP treatment restored the responsiveness of resistant glioma cells towards TMZ therapy. Concomitant treatment with CAP and TMZ led to inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest, thus CAP might be a promising candidate for combination therapy especially for patients suffering from GBMs showing an unfavorable MGMT status and TMZ resistance.
REGULARYFRAMWORK AND LEGAL BASE OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT CIRCULATION НОРМАТИВНО-ПРАВОВА БАЗА ЕЛЕКТРОННОГО ДОКУМЕНТООБ ГУ
T.Г. Омельченко,Н.А. Джанджгава
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: The general characteristic of legal base of electronic document circulation is presented in the article. It legislatively regulates the relations which connected with the information and information communication technologies. There is presented the list of the basic acts of regulation of sphere of information relations. У робот подано загальну характеристику нормативно-правово бази, яка законодавчо регулю в дносини, пов'язан з нформац ю, нформац йно-комун кац йними технолог ями, представлено перел к основних законодавчих акт в регулювання сфери нформац йних в дносин.
THE APPROACH OF COMPETENCE AT THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL INFORMATICS IN A PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY КОМПЕТЕНТН СНИЙ П ДХ Д ПРИ ВИВЧЕНН МАТЕМАТИЧНО НФОРМАТИКИ” У ПЕДАГОГ ЧНОМУ УН ВЕРСИТЕТ
T.П. Кобильник
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: In the paper the approach of competence at the study of mathematical informatics in a pedagogical university is considered. The special attention is paid to forming of professional pedagogical and educational-cognitive competences. The example of tasks on which formed a competence at the study of mathematical informatics is resulted. У статт розглянуто компетентн сний п дх д при вивченн математично нформатики у педагог чному ун верситет . Особливу увагу звернено на формування профес йно педагог чно та навчально-п знавальну компетентност . Наведено приклад завдань, як сприяють формуванню компетентностей при вивченн математично нформатики.
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