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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117859 matches for " T Ngwira "
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Sensory Properties of Traditionally-Fermented Buttermilk (Omashikwa) Processed in Namibia
P G Bille, A TR Ozuuko, T Ngwira
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2002,
Abstract: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, P/Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia. An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the main problems of traditionally-fermented milk products processed in the rural setup are based on variable sensory quality, hygiene and unattractive presentation to consumers. Sensory evaluation scores of 9 samples of traditional fermented buttermilk and control buttermilk from ten panelists for appearance, smell, taste and consistency on a 5-point hedonic scale were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to judge whether or not differences existed for various characteristics (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Those which showed differences between the means were subjected to Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the means of control samples differed significantly from other means and scored the highest points in all characteristics. The control samples were then considered superior. J Food Tech in Africa (2002) 7, 52-54
History of rotavirus research in children in Malawi: the pursuit of a killer
N Cunliffe, D Witte, B Ngwira
Malawi Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among Malawian children. Studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. Despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine clearly demonstrated the potential for rotavirus vaccination to greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus diarrhoea in Malawi. This new enteric vaccine initiative represents a major opportunity to improve the health and survival of Malawian children.
Audit of gynaecological cancers Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre
F Taulo, E Malunga, A Ngwira
Malawi Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the audit was to assess the trend of the gynaecological cancers for the first quarter of 2008, and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among the cases. Gynaecological cancer cases accounted for 6% of gynaecological admissions at QECH between January and April 2008. The findings show that cervical cancer still remains the leading gynaecological cancer among women in the unit. Among the cases where HIV testing was done, 50% of cases tested HIV positive and these were all cervical, vaginal and vulval cancer cases. Syphilis was prevalent in 10% of the cases. Low socioeconomic status and young age was associated with cervical cancer. A majority of the cases of advanced cervical cancer had been sub optimally managed by health workers at initial visit when the disease was at its early stage hence missing an opportunity for adequate treatment. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (4) 2008: pp. 140-142
The epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in Rumphi district, Malawi: a ten year retrospective study
M Madanitsa, J Chisi, B Ngwira
Malawi Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by two species of the tsetse fly vectored protozoan hemoflagellates belonging to Trypanosma brucei, namely T.b gambiense which predominates in Western Africa and follows a chronic disease course and T.b rhodensiense which is more prevalent in Southern and Eastern Africa, Malawi included, and follows a more acute and aggressive disease course. Previous studies in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Uganda and Sudan have demonstrated that the prevalence rates of T.b rhodensiense infection have reached epidemic proportions. Objectives To describe the epidemiology of Trypanosomiasis in Rumphi District over the past ten years. Methodology A total of 163 records from January 2000 to December 2006 were retrospectively studied. Results There were more males than females (121 vs. 40) with the 20 – 29 years age bracket having the highest number of cases (26.3%, n=160). Stage 2 HAT was the commonest stage at presentation (58.2%, n=158) with the patients in the same being 3.5 times more likely to die than those with stage 1 HAT. Case fatality rates for late and early stage disease were 21.5% (n = 92) and 7.2% (n = 66) respectively with 84.6% having been cured (n=162). Convulsions were associated with fatal disease outcome and the majority of cases (97.2%, n=103) lived within 5 kilometres of the Vwaza game reserve boundary. Conclusion More men have been infected than women, with a high involvement in the 20 – 29 age brackets. A dramatic increase with active case finding indicates a high under-detection of the disease with late stage HAT being predominant at presentation. Though it has been found that cases with late stage disease have an increased likelihood of dying compared to those in early stage HAT, the high proportion of successful treatment indicates that the disease still carries a high degree of favourable outcome with treatment. It has also been demonstrated in this study that more than 95% of trypanosomiasis cases live within 5 km of game reserve boundary. Disease interventions should be implemented in areas within 5km of marshland game reserve boundary as priority areas. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 21 (1) 2009: pp. 22-27
Patient Experience during Hospital Stay: A Pilot Survey  [PDF]
Satyanarayana V. Sagi, Cong Chen, Kyaw Z. Htun, Kalyani Puvanendrampillai, Medhavi Ratnayake, Joseph Ngwira, Jeyanthy Rajkanna, Samson O. Oyibo
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814150
Abstract: Introduction: Hospital inpatient care is provided to individuals who have a condition that requires them to stay in hospital. Patient experience is an important aspect of high-quality patient-centered care. Aim: With this pilot survey we aimed to obtain patient feedback on their experiences during their hospital stay, highlight areas of best practice and areas for improvement and provide a basis for a hospital-wide inpatient experience survey. Patients and Methods: Anonymous patient experience questionnaires were given to patients who were discharged from hospital during the month of May 2016. Patients were asked to answer 45 questions concerning their experience during hospital stay using the five-point Likert scale, and hand back the questionnaire before leaving the hospital. A suggestion box was provided for comments and suggestions for improvement. Results: Fifty-six questionnaires were handed out and 50 (from 27 males, 17 females and 6 patients who did not specify their gender) questionnaires were returned (89% response rate). Most of the responses fell within the “agree” to “strongly agree” range indicating a positive patient experience for most of the items addressed. Patients also provided useful comments and suggestions. Conclusion: Results of this survey indicate that patients generally had a positive experience during their hospital stay. This survey has revealed areas for improvement, and highlights the importance of patient experience when assessing a patient-centered service.
Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses Striga asiatica and has seed depletion role in maize (Zea mays L.) in Malawi
VH Kabambe1, F Kanampiu, A Ngwira
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The parasitic weed species, Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze, also known as witchweed, is one of the major constraints in maize production in Malawi. Most of the control measures do not protect a current crop from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 g active ingredient ha-1) on S. asiatica suppression, maize growth and yield. The maize hybrid IntA/IntB//Pioneer325irMZ98F2, bearing target site resistance to imazapyr (IR maize), was used as test crop. In the subsequent season, normal or non-IR maize was planted on the same plots of 1998/99, to assess the residual or spill-over effects on Striga emergence, maize growth and yield. In the first season, results showed that imazapyr seed dressing suppressed (P < 0.05) Striga emergence to < 1.0 plant m-2, compared to 4.8 plants m-2 in untreated plots at 69 days after planting (DAP). At 86 DAP, use of imazapyr suppressed (P < 0.05) Striga emergence to > 6.7 plants m-2 compared to 14.7 plants m-2 in untreated control. At 106 DAP, the number of Striga that flowered in untreated plots was 6.2 plants m-2, compared to < 1.0 in all treated plots. The use of imazapyr gave no significant (P > 0.05) yield differences. In the subsequent season, imazapyr treatments gave no residual or spill-over effects on maize growth and yield (P > 0.05. There were significant (P < 0.05) effects on Striga emergence similar to the first season. The results therefore suggest that the use of ALS inhibiting herbicides not only suppresses Striga emergence, but also has a seed depletion role in integrated management of Striga without any spill-over or, herbicide injury in subsequent unprotected maize. This technology would be simple for farmers to adopt.
Sentinel surveillance of Lymphatic filariasis, Schistosomiasis, Soil transmitted helminths and Malaria in rural southern Malawi
K Msyamboza, B Ngwira, R Banda, S Mkwanda, B Brabin
Malawi Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Baseline prevalence and knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) survey is a prerequisite for mass drug administration for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and other neglected tropical diseases. Methods: In preparation for the first mass drug administration for LF elimination, a baseline survey was conducted in six sentinel sites in the southern Malawi, amongst participants aged five years or more. A standard questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic factors, ownership and use of bed nets, previous ingestion of ivermectin and KAP toward hydrocele and lymphoedema. Finger prick blood samples were collected from 22:00 to 01:00 hours for LF microscopy, malaria and haemoglobin examination. Stool and urine samples were collected for internal helminths and schistosomiasis respectively. Results: A total of 1, 903 participants were enrolled. Knowledge on the cause of hydrocele and lymphoedema was low in all the sentinel sites (16%-42%, 10%-24% (respectively). Sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, bad weather and HIV/AIDS were perceived causes of hydrocele. Microfilaraemia prevalence was 1.5% and varied little between sentinel sites (1.0%-2.1%). Childhood urinary schistosomiasis was common in Phalombe (94.9%) and Blantyre (26.9%). Conclusion Integrated approach and understanding of the community KAP is vital or successful implementation of LF elimination programme
Image Representation Using EPANECHNIKOV Density Feature Points Estimator
Tranos Zuva,Seleman M. Ngwira,Sunday O. Ojo,Keneilwe Zuva
Signal & Image Processing , 2013,
Abstract: In image retrieval most of the existing visual content based representation methods are usually applicationdependent or non robust, making them not suitable for generic applications. These representation methodsuse visual contents such as colour, texture, shape,size etc. Human image recognition is largely basedonshape, thus making it very appealing for image representation algorithms in computer vision.In this paper we propose a generic image representation algorithm using Epanechnikov Density FeaturePoints Estimator (EDFPE). It is invariant to rotation, scale and translation. The image density featurepoints within defined rectangular rings around thegravitational centre of the image are obtained in theform of a vector. The EDFPE is applied to the vector representation of the image. The Cosine AngleDistance (CAD) algorithm is used to measure similarity of the images in the database. Quantitativeevaluation of the performance of the system and comparison with other algorithms was done
Characterizing the emergence and persistence of drug resistant mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infections using 454 ultra deep pyrosequencing
Bansode Vijay,McCormack Grace P,Crampin Amelia C,Ngwira Bagrey
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-52
Abstract: Background The role of HIV-1 RNA in the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is well documented while less is known about the role of historical viruses stored in the proviral DNA. The primary focus of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity and evolution of HIV drug resistant variants in an individual’s provirus during antiretroviral therapy using next generation sequencing. Methods Blood samples were collected prior to antiretroviral therapy exposure and during the course of treatment from five patients in whom drug resistance mutations had previously been identified using consensus sequencing. The spectrum of viral variants present in the provirus at each sampling time-point were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing from multiple combined PCR products. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was characterized at each time-point. Results Low abundance drug resistant viruses were identified in 14 of 15 sampling time-points from the five patients. In all individuals DRMs against current therapy were identified at one or more of the sampling time-points. In two of the five individuals studied these DRMs were present prior to treatment exposure and were present at high prevalence within the amplified and sequenced viral population. DRMs to drugs other than those being currently used were identified in four of the five individuals. Conclusion The presence of DRMs in the provirus, regardless of their observed prevalence did not appear to have an effect on clinical outcomes in the short term suggesting that the drug resistant viral variants present in the proviral DNA do not appear to play a role in the short term in facilitating the emergence of drug resistance.
Analysis of Schistosomiasis haematobium Infection Prevalence and Intensity in Chikhwawa, Malawi: An Application of a Two Part Model
Michael G. Chipeta ,Bagrey Ngwira,Lawrence N. Kazembe
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002131
Abstract: Background Urinary Schistosomiasis infection, a common cause of morbidity especially among children in less developed countries, is measured by the number of eggs per urine. Typically a large proportion of individuals are non-egg excretors, leading to a large number of zeros. Control strategies require better understanding of its epidemiology, hence appropriate methods to model infection prevalence and intensity are crucial, particularly if such methods add value to targeted implementation of interventions. Methods We consider data that were collected in a cluster randomized study in 2004 in Chikhwawa district, Malawi, where eighteen (18) villages were selected and randomised to intervention and control arms. We developed a two-part model, with one part for analysis of infection prevalence and the other to model infection intensity. In both parts of the model we adjusted for age, sex, education level, treatment arm, occupation, and poly-parasitism. We also assessed for spatial correlation in the model residual using variogram analysis and mapped the spatial variation in risk. The model was fitted using maximum likelihood estimation. Results and discussion The study had a total of 1642 participants with mean age of 32.4 (Standard deviation: 22.8), of which 55.4 % were female. Schistosomiasis prevalence was 14.2 %, with a large proportion of individuals (85.8 %) being non-egg excretors, hence zero-inflated data. Our findings showed that S. haematobium was highly localized even after adjusting for risk factors. Prevalence of infection was low in males as compared to females across all the age ranges. S. haematobium infection increased with presence of co-infection with other parasite infection. Infection intensity was highly associated with age; with highest intensity in school-aged children (6 to 15 years). Fishing and working in gardens along the Shire River were potential risk factors for S. haematobium infection intensity. Intervention reduced both infection intensity and prevalence in the intervention arm as compared to control arm. Farmers had high infection intensity as compared to non farmers, despite the fact that being a farmer did not show any significant association with probability of infection. These results evidently indicate that infection prevalence and intensity are associated with risk factors differently, suggesting a non-singular epidemiological setting. The dominance of agricultural, socio-economic and demographic factors in determining S. haematobium infection and intensity suggest that disease transmission and control strategies
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