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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117861 matches for " T Gebre "
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Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban dwellers in southwest Ethiopia
A Mengistu, S Gebre-Selassie, T Kassa
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2007,
Seroprevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Borana and Guji lowlands, Southern Ethiopia
T Bekele, Y Asfaw, B Gebre-Egziabeher, G Abebe
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: A multistage cross sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in selected districts of Borana and Guji lowlands, Southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of the disease and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. A total of 900 sera samples were collected and tested using Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 69 randomly selected households. Out of the 900 goat sera samples tested, 119 (13.2%) were seropositive for CCPP, giving an overall seroprevalence of 13.2 % (95% CI=11.0%-15.4%) in the study areas. A seroprevalence of 18.3% (95% CI=14.3%-22.7%), 11.7% (95% CI=8%-15.2%) and 9.7% (95% CI=6.3%-12.6%) were recorded in Liban, Teltale and Moyale districts respectively. The seroprevalence recorded in Liban district was significantly different from that of Moyale district (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis on the assumed risk factors showed that age, flock size and distance from veterinary service centre were the major risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease with Odds ratios of 2.18 (95% CI=1.64-2.91), 1.59 (95% CI=1.11-2.29) and 1.43 (95% CI=1.03-1.98) respectively. The questionnaire survey has revealed that contact at watering points, restocking, lack of veterinary service, and large flock size were the major factors for the spread and occurrence of the disease in the area. In conclusion, the serological findings and questionnaire survey indicated that CCPP is the top major goat health problem in the area which warrants appropriate measures to be in place towards the prevention and control of the disease in the study areas.
Comparative Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Mucilages of Two Cactus Pears (Opuntia Spp.) Obtained from Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Naod Gebresamuel, Tsige Gebre-Mariam
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.31010
Abstract: Cactus is a plant that naturally grows in tropical and semi-tropical regions of the world. The composition of this mucilage is believed to differ from species to species. Hence, comparative study was carried out on mucilages of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) and Opuntia stricta (OS) as regard to their physico-chemical properties and acute toxicity levels. The study indicated that solubility of the dry mucilages were comparable and increased as raise in temperature. However, at all temperature levels the swelling powers were significantly higher in mucilage of OS than that of OFI. At 100% RH the moisture sorption property of OFI (95.4%) was higher than that of OS (76.9%). The pH values of both mucilages at 12% dispersions were found to be 5.57 and 5.87 for OFI and OS, respectively. The conductivity at the same concentration, 12% (w/v), of OFI was 13.12 mS/cm while that of OS was 9.31 mS/cm. The apparent viscosities at 12% (w/v) were 9,017 mPas and 10,060 mPas for OFI and OS, respectively. The apparent viscosities of the dispersions decreased with increase in shear rates which rendered the dispersions a pseudoplastic flow. The surface tension of the aqueous dispersions of OFI (28.71 mN/M) decreased significantly as compared to that of OS (39.7 mN/M). The results of the study proved that the mucilage of OS was superior to OFI mucilage for use as food and pharmaceutical excipients. Moreover, both mucilages exhibited low acute toxicity levels.
UNC79 and UNC80, Putative Auxiliary Subunits of the NARROW ABDOMEN Ion Channel, Are Indispensable for Robust Circadian Locomotor Rhythms in Drosophila
Bridget C. Lear, Eric J. Darrah, Benjamin T. Aldrich, Senetibeb Gebre, Robert L. Scott, Howard A. Nash, Ravi Allada
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078147
Abstract: In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a network of circadian pacemaker neurons drives daily rhythms in rest and activity. The ion channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA), orthologous to the mammalian sodium leak channel NALCN, functions downstream of the molecular circadian clock in pacemaker neurons to promote behavioral rhythmicity. To better understand the function and regulation of the NA channel, we have characterized two putative auxiliary channel subunits in Drosophila, unc79 (aka dunc79) and unc80 (aka CG18437). We have generated novel unc79 and unc80 mutations that represent strong or complete loss-of-function alleles. These mutants display severe defects in circadian locomotor rhythmicity that are indistinguishable from na mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific RNA interference and rescue analyses indicate that UNC79 and UNC80 likely function within pacemaker neurons, with similar anatomical requirements to NA. We observe an interdependent, post-transcriptional regulatory relationship among the three gene products, as loss of na, unc79, or unc80 gene function leads to decreased expression of all three proteins, with minimal effect on transcript levels. Yet despite this relationship, we find that the requirement for unc79 and unc80 in circadian rhythmicity cannot be bypassed by increasing NA protein expression, nor can these putative auxiliary subunits substitute for each other. These data indicate functional requirements for UNC79 and UNC80 beyond promoting channel subunit expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments also confirm that UNC79 and UNC80 form a complex with NA in the Drosophila brain. Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila NA, UNC79, and UNC80 function together in circadian clock neurons to promote rhythmic behavior.
Severe malaria among children in Gambella, western Ethiopia
Betemariam Gebre, Yayeh Negash
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1): 61-70]
Assessment of ART adverse reactions and determinants at primary hospital in Ethiopia
Legese Chelkeba,Gebre Abdissa
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130317
Abstract: Background: Much progress has been made in treating HIV infection in the last several years and currently antiretroviral therapy regimens are capable of reducing viral load of undetectable level with a consequent increase in T-lymphocyte, CD4+ counts and reduction in development of opportunistic infections. Hence, a substantial reduction in HIV associated morbidity and mortality can be attained. In spite of antiretroviral therapy benefits, adverse reaction to these drugs has been pointed to as one of the main reason for discontinuation, switch and non adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective review of patient record from December 2009-Novomber 2012 was performed to determine the common adverse drug reactions in patients taking ART medications. A sample of 154 who were taking ART medications at Ambo Zonal Hospital was studied and SPSS for windows software versions-16.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of patients with average age of 32.5 years who are taking ART drugs for more than 6 months were studied for the prevalence of adverse reactions. The frequency of GI tract adverse reactions were found to be 75 (48.7%) followed by CNS adverse effects, 55 (35.7%) skin reactions accounted for 29 (18.8%). The least frequently occurred adverse reactions were hematologic reaction (anemia). Patients with low BMI (OR =4.09, p=0.000), having comorbidities (OR=4.566, p=0.000), low CD4+, p=0.002) and treated by TDF/3-TC/EFV (OR=2.087, p=0.001) had high risk of developing adverse drug recreations. Conclusions: BMI, the presence of other diseases, types of regimen used, duration of therapy and CD4+ lymphocyte less than 400cell/mm3 were strongly associated with the occurrence of adverse drug effects in this study. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000): 208-215]
Determinants of Food Insecurity among Households in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia
Girma Gezimu Gebre
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems , 2012,
Abstract: Even though there is long-held belief that urban populations are better off, or even favoured than rural populations, the recent food and financial crises have highlighted the problem of urban food insecurity in developing countries. Hence, the overall objective of this study was to examine the determinants of food insecurity among urban households in Addis Ababa city. To do so, both descriptive statistics and econometric analysis were employed. Descriptive statistics used Foster, Greer and Thorbeck distributional measure of food insecurity while econometric analysis used binary logistic regression model to analyze the data of a set of socio-economic variables as explanatory variables and food insecurity as independent variable.The head count index shows that 58,16 % of the total households are below the food insecurity line. The food insecurity gap and severity were 20 % and 9,4 %, respectively. The result of the logistic regression model estimate indicates that out of the 10 factors included, 6 were found to have a significant influence on the probability of being food insecure at less than 10 % significance level. The variables considered were household size, age of household head, household head education, and access to credit, household asset possession, and access to employment.Efforts should be made to improve income earning capacity of households, their education level with particular focus on vocational training, reduce household size with a view to reducing their dependency ratio and access of credit to the needy and trained people needs to be provided with proper targeting criterion.
Bioactivity of essential oils of local plants against adult Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Fekadu Massebo, Mekuria Tadesse, Meshesha Balkew, Teshome Gebre-Michael
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48105
Abstract: The adulticidal activities of essential oils of eleven plants namely Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globules, Lippia adoensis, Mentha spicata, Nigella sativa, Ocimum lamiifolium, Ocimum suave, Piper nigrum, Schinus molle and Thymus vulgaris were assessed against a laboratory colony of Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) glass bottle bioassay was adopted to conduct bioefficacy tests. For each replicate, ten blood-unfed female An. arabiensis were exposed to different concentrations of essential oils coated in glass bottles, and mortality was recorded at intervals of 5 minutes for one hour to assess the mean percentage mortality and LC50 and LC90 values. The residual toxicity of six essential oils was also assessed by exposing adult An. arabiensis in nylon netting Barraud cages treated by oils. Of all the essential oils assessed for adulticidal activities, O. suave was found to be toxic at low concentration (LC50 = of 0.0014 ml% v/v; LC90 = 0.0027 ml% v/v). The next efficacious oil was that of T. vulgaris with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0028 ml% v/v and 0.005 ml% v/v, respectively. The lowest activity was due to S. molle, E. globulus and P. nigrum. At a concentration of 0.05 ml% v/v, O. suave killed 100% of An. arabiensis within five minutes of exposure, while P. nigrum at the same duration caused similar rate of mortality at a concentration of 50 fold. Residual toxicity tests revealed O. suave to persist for 15 days, killing all mosquitoes in the first five days and 80% up to 10 days. The lowest residual activity was noted for E. citriodora which
Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection: Yet Another Reason for Early Initiation of Treatment in HIV Infected Individuals  [PDF]
Yared Hailaye, Muluken Dessalegn, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.34040

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection with HIV is becoming a major challenge due to shared routes of transmission. The burden is apparent in regions with widespread use of antiretroviral treatment, which led to the enhanced emergence of liver-related diseases and mortality. Though there are conflicting results about the effect of chronic HBV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load, HIV RNA copies/ml), HAART is known to cause immune mediated HBV specific liver damage after it reconstitutes cell-mediated immunity. The relationship of different HAART regimes with immune recovery is an area of research interest. Objective: It is in order to determine the changes in immune recovery during HBV infection in the setting of HAART among HIV positive individuals attending care and treatment services. Methods: Two cohorts of co-infected patients were analyzed from data of one to seven months retrospectively. The first group (n = 380) was antiretroviral drug naive and the second cohort (n = 380) was on HAART for the entire period. The study was conducted in one referral hospital and six health centers. Data were gathered from 760 patients using their intake form, their follow-up form and their medical records supplemented by data from a structured questionnaire. HBV infection was determined by using HBsAg rapid and confirmatory tests and CD4 cells were enumerated

Analysis of Watershed Attributes for Water Resources Management Using GIS: The Case of Chelekot Micro-Watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tesfaye Gebre, Tigist Kibru, Samuale Tesfaye, Gebeyehu Taye
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.72015
Abstract: This study identified the importance of watershed attributes for water resource management using ArcGIS software, ASTER DEM and satellite images for the Chelekot micro-watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia. The study also evaluate the different hydrological parameters which are significant for the water resource management within the micro-watershed and finds the alternative solutions for water harvesting in the study area through the introduction of suitable soil and water conservation structures based on the finding. Principal watershed attributes including drainage pattern, topographic parameters, land use types, and soil types were evaluated and interpreted for the study micro-watershed. ArcGIS software was used for the computation, delineation of the boundary and morphometric analysis of the micro-watershed using topographical maps and ASTER DEM data. Results indicate that the micro-watershed has classified as a dendritic pattern with stream orders ranging from first to fifth order. The micro-watershed has homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control of surface flow. The drainage density is medium which indicates the area contains soils with medium infiltration rates and moderate relief. Drainage texture, stream frequency and the form factor of the micro-watershed are 4.1, 1.7 and 0.4 respectively. The bifurcation ratio of the micro-watershed ranges from 1 to 4.5 and the elongation ratio is 0.7 which reveals that the micro-watershed belongs to the less elongated shaped micro-watershed category. The mean bifurcation ratio of the whole micro-watershed is 3.3 indicating that the drainage pattern is not greatly influenced by geological structures. The micro-watershed land covers includes: cultivated land (75.8%), settlement and open land (10.5%), shrubs and plantation (13.2%), and water body (0.4%). The major soil types are Vertisol (58%), Camisole (32%), Regosol (9.5%) and Luvisol (0.7%). The textural classes are clay (5%), silty clay (22%), clay loam (17%), sandy loam (21%) and loam (35%) based on the soil textural map of the micro-watershed. Our results revealed that using GIS and ASTER DEM data based watershed morphometric analysis and hydrological evaluation at watershed scale is more applied and precise compared to other available techniques.
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