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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 283822 matches for " T D Kebede "
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Ultrasound Assessment of Normal Portal Vein Diameter in Ethiopians Done at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital
Y Hawaz, D Admassie, T Kebede
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Portal hypertension occurs when the portal venous pressure exceeds 10mm Hg. Whatever the primary cause, the consequences of portal hypertension are similar. Liver cirrhosis is the commonest cause of portal hypertension. Because of its accessibility, lack of ionizing radiation and rapid assessment, sonography plays a major role in the assessment of portal hypertension. Even if the additional use of color and spectral Doppler improves the assessment of patients suspected of having portal hypertension, gray scale assessment of portal vein diameter is corner stone in the initial evaluation. Knowing the normal portal venous dimension in a specified population is so crucial. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study done at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital to sonographically determine the normal portal vein diameter. Data was collected from 502 patients on consecutive bases from May – September 2010. This includes 190 males and 312 females. Results: The mean portal vein diameter was 7.9 + 2mm with an increase in diameter with increase in age of the subject. Our study also revealed 21.5% increase in portal vein diameter with the phases of inspiration. Conclusion: This study has comparable results with studies done elsewhere so that it can be used as a baseline for future population based studies and clinical decision making.
Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia
AA Alem, A Zergaw, D Kebede, M Araya, M Desta, T Muche, D Chali, G Medhin
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: According to ILO estimates, at least 180 million children aged 5 to 14 years are currently engaged in fulltime work in the developing countries. However, very little information exists about childhood behavioral and mental disorders in Ethiopia. Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health problems of the study population are examined here. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8 to 15 years, and who were engaged in fulltime work in different formal and informal sectors non-laborers, was conducted in four major towns of Ethiopia. The screening instrument known as Reported Questionnaire on Children (RQC) and a diagnostic instrument known as the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents ( DICA) were used to detect symptoms and signs of behavioral and mental problems in the children. br> Results: A total of 2000 child laborers and 400 non-laborers were interviewed using RQC to screen for probable cases of behavioral and mental problems. Of these, 50% of the laborers and 42% of the non-laborers were males. The mean age of the laborers was 13.8 ±1.8 years while that of the non-laborers was 12.2 ±2.1 years. More females (76.8%) were found to have been engaged in domestic labor than males. The RQC interview screened 9.4% (n=226) of the children as probable cases of mental/ behavioral disorders, (14.0% non-laborers and 8.5% laborers). The second stage DICA interview gave an overall prevalence of 5.5% (4.9% in laborers and 8.8% in non-laborers). Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood behavioral and mental disorders in this study is within the range reported in previews studies conducted on children of the same age group. However, the lower prevalence of childhood disorders in the child laborers compared to that of the non-laborers found in the current study is probably due to selection bias or healthy workers effect. Thus, further study is recommended to explain this unexpected finding. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20 (2) 2006: 119-126
The Association of Diabetes Mellitus with Cholelithiasis and Liver Diseases in Addis Ababa - Ethiopia
YT Iasu, T Kebede
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Gallstone disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases reported in abdominal ultrasound investigations. Liver diseases and cholelithiasis are commonly linked with diabetes. Studies have shown that diabetic patients have a 2 to 3-fold increase in the incidence of cholesterol Gallstone. Our literature review indicated no similar study had been conducted in the country. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus on ultrasound diagnosed cholelithiasis and other liver diseases, amongst Ethiopians. Methodology: A retrospective case control study was conducted at Myungsung Christian Medical Center (MCMC) on 250 cases with ultrasound evidence of cholelithiasis and 250 controls to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other liver diseases. Results: A high prevalence of Diabetes mellitus was demonstrated among patients with gallbladder stones- 34% as compared to 15.2% in the controls (Pearson’s chi-square 23.819, P value = 0.000, OR = 2.874). This association remained significant even when sex was controlled, though association was stronger among females. Conclusions: The association observed in this study, between Diabetes mellitus and cholelithiasis among Ethiopians, may need wider scale study including dietary habits.
The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals attending an adult psychiatry out-patient clinic in Gondar, Ethiopia
D Mekonnen, Y Kebede
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from March-December 2006 involving a total of 474 patients. Data was collected using a pre tested structured questionnaire containing basic socio-demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, the methods of suicide attempt and ways of survival from the attempted suicide. It was administered by psychiatry nurses working in the clinic. The data was analyzed anonymously using SPSS software. Results: The commonest mental illness was Major Depressive Disorder (51.3%) followed by Psychosis (38%). Ninety one (19.2 %) patients attempted suicide at least once after the onset of the current mental illness and 307(64.8%) have suicidal ideation. The common method of suicidal attempt was hanging (45.1%) and 69.2% were at home. An association was found between suicidal ideation and attempt (OR=33.7; CI=8.2-138.8, p-value <0.01). Conclusion: Suicidal ideation was common in psychiatric patients. It was also associated with suicidal attempt.
National Survey on Blindness, Low Vision and Trachoma in Ethiopia: Methods and Study Clusters Profile
Y Berhane, A Worku, A Bejiga, L Adamu, W Alemayehu, A Bedri, Z Haile, A Ayalew, W Adamu, T Gebre, T D Kebede, E West, S West
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2007,
Abstract: Background: The magnitude and causes of eye diseases in Ethiopia has been derived from small scale studies. This information became no longer useful in tracking the success of intensified efforts in preventing and controlling avoidable causes of blindness and eye diseases in line with the goals of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight. Objective: The national household survey was conducted primarily to provide national and regional state level estimates of low vision, blindness and trachoma. The secondary aims include describing the major causes of low vision and blindness. Methods: The national survey utilized cross sectional epidemiological study design with multistage sampling strategy. All nine regional states and two city administrations of the country were involved in the survey. Sample size and sampling strategies were developed taking into account population size of the regional states. Visual acuity was tested using the LogMar chart and trachoma grading was done following the WHO grading system. The cause of low vision and blindness were determined by ophthalmologists. Results: A total of 174 clusters, 6056 households and 30022 individuals were involved in the survey. Of the total 30022 individuals 25650 (85.4%) were present and examined by the survey team. Implementing quality control supervision in the very remote clusters was a major challenge. About 55% of the survey clusters were within 10 Km of health facility that stock tetracycline; 18.3% within 10 Km of health facility that provides Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) surgery and 18.6% were within 10Km of health facility that provides cataract surgery. Only 29.4% of the survey clusters were fully accessible by car. The majority of survey household head were farmers (70.8%) and illiterate (64.5%). About 48% of the households obtain their water from either a protected well/spring or piped distribution. Only 40.4% of the households reported that no animal is kept around the living quarter. Most households dispose garbage in open field (84.6%) and have no latrine (60.3%). Conclusion: The survey was conducted on a representative sample and provides reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. However, careful interpretations of results from remote and inaccessible areas are warranted. Access to eye care facilities are limited and need expansion in order to reduce the blindness and low vision load. Sanitation conditions favoring fly breeding are rampant and trachoma control program need to emphasize a more integrated approach. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 21 (3) 2007: pp. 185-203
Prevalence and causes of blindness and Low Vision in Ethiopia
Y Berhane, A Worku, A Bejiga, L Adamu, W Alemayehu, A Bedri, Z Haile, A Ayalew, Y Adamu, T Gebre, T D Kebede, E West, S West
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Ethiopia lacked accurate recent national estimates of blindness and low vision. Therefore, prevention and control programs face serious problem of lack of recognition of the problem and challenges in tracking achievements towards program goals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of blindness and low vision at the national and regional levels in Ethiopia. Method: A national survey was conducted on a representative population in all nine regional states and two city administrations of the country. The LogMar chart was used to determine the presenting visual acuity and ophthalmologists determined the primary cause of low vision and blindness. Results: Based on the assessment of the presenting visual acuity, the national prevalence of blindness is 1.6% (1.1% for urban and 1.6% for rural populations) and that of low vision is 3.7% (2.6% for urban and 3.8% for rural populations). Blindness and Low vision are more prevalent among females. The major causes of blindness are cataract and trachomatous corneal opacity. The major causes of low vision are cataract and refractive error. Prevalence of childhood blindness is 0.1% and accounts for over 6% of the total blindness burden in Ethiopia. The national prevalence of Bitot\'s spots is 0.7%. Conclusion: Blindness and low vision are major public health problems in Ethiopia. The large proportion of low vision (91.2%) and blindness (87.4%) are due to avoidable (either preventable or treatable) causes. Females and rural residents carry greater risk for eye problems. Adequate emphasis needs to be given to prevent blindness among children and avert millions of years of unnecessary blindness. Recognizing the severity of the magnitude of eye problems (blindness and low vision) and enhancing the government commitment to improve the situation is critical. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 21 (3) 2007: pp. 204-210
Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Azmeraw Tayelgn, Desalegn T Zegeye, Yigzaw Kebede
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-78
Abstract: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction).The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service.The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG5) is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 3/4 between 1990 and 2015. Pregnancy and childbirth claim the lives of an estimated half a million of women globally each year [1]. More than half of these deaths occur in Africa [1]. Ethiopia is one of the countries that have highest maternal mortality rates (MMR) in the world which is estimated to be 673/100,000 live births [2]. Part of this mortality is attributed to poor delivery care [3].The Ethiopian government and international organizations are working for making hospital delivery services accessible and usable for all pregnant women but still the proportion of births attended by a skilled birth attendant is about 18.4% [4] in 2009 which was much lower than the average level in developing count
A comparative study of volatile components of propolis (bee glue) collected from Haramaya University and Assela Beekeeping Centers, Ethiopia
K Haile, T Kebede, A Dekebo
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: The investigation of the volatile compounds of essential oils of propolis from two geographic origins of Ethiopia (Haramaya and Assela) was made by GC-MS. A total of 62 components of the oil were identified from both samples. The identified constituents of the oils may be divided into seven different groups: oxygenated monoterpenes (29.81% Haramaya, 9.45% Asella), sesquiterpenes (15.20% Haramaya, 19.05% Assela), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (11.86% Haramaya, 18.56% Assela), aromatic (14.93% Haramaya, 4.25% Assela), oxygenated aromatic (17.59% Haramaya, 4.58% Assela), aliphatic (5.06% Haramaya, 7.62% Assela) and oxygenated aliphatic (7.84% Haramaya, 25.17% Asella). The major volatile compounds of Haramaya propolis consist of calamenene (13.82%), 4-terpineol (8.57%), epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.37%), 4-(2-acetyl-5,5-dimethylcyclopent-2-enylidene)butan-2-one (7.83%) and 3-isopropyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclo- hexanecarbaldehyde (5.90%). Whereas the most abundant constituents of Assela propolis were 5,6,7,8-tetramethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-4-en-3-one (15.01%), acoradien (13.77%), epicedrol (6.80%) and (6E,6E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-1,6,10,14-hexadecatetraen-3-ol (6.14%). Ten compounds which were found in both samples of propolis were trans-pinocarveol, α-cadinol, cis-verbenol, α-campholenal, 4-terpineol, p-cymen-8-ol, p-menth-1-en-8-ol, epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene, calamenene and 3-isopropyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. KEY WORDS: Propolis, Bee glue, Monoterpene, Sesquiterpene, Calamenene, 4-Terpineol Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(3), 353-360. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.4
Corn Yield Response to Reduced Water Use at Different Growth Stages  [PDF]
Hirut Kebede, Ruixiu Sui, Daniel K. Fisher, Krishna N. Reddy, Nacer Bellaloui, William T. Molin
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.513139
To develop an efficient water use strategy for crop irrigation, we need to know how much water can be reduced without decreasing yield. A study was designed to determine corn growth stages at which water could be reduced without affecting grain yield, and at what soil moisture level water deficit stress begins in the plants in a silt loam soil. An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block with a 3 × 4 factorial design in four replications, where treatments consisted of three soil moisture levels [100%, 75%, and 50% of field capacity (FC) of a silt loam soil by weight] and four growth stages [fourteen leaf stage (V14), silking (R1), milk (R3), and dent (R5) stages] in a greenhouse. Growth stages at the reproductive and grain fill stages of corn were selected because this study was intended for the Mississippi Delta, where there is frequent drought during these growth stages making irrigation necessary for corn production, whereas there is usually adequate rainfall during the vegetative growth stages. Results from this study showed that reducing soil moisture from 100% FC (fully irrigated) to 75% FC of a silt loam soil starting at the R1 growth stage in corn did not reduce yield significantly compared to yield from the 100% FC, while saving a significant amount of water. Physiological investigations at the three soil moisture treatments showed that a mild moisture deficit stress might have started at the 75% FC treatment. With further investigation, if savings in water at 75% FC result in a significant reduction in energy cost, it may be profitable to reduce soil moisture to 75% FC in a silt loam soil.
Communication skills of physicians during patient interaction in an in-patient setting at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009
D Zewdneh, K W/Michael, S Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Physician-patient relationship is foremost among the numerous qualities needed for sound patient care. In the Ethiopian clinical setting, a vast majority of patients complain that physicians do not interact with them properly. Objective: Assess behavior of physicians (verbal and nonverbal) when interacting with patients. Methods: Randomly selected physicians were observed in doctor-patient interactions in an inpatient setting using a standardized check list at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in November, 2009.Mean comparison of total scores of each category as well as mean interaction and biomedical exam times were made using Pearson’s Chi square, and Student’s T test. Results: 211 interactions were observed. 22.7% were consultants, 49.7% were residents and 26.5% were interns. Mean total score of observed behavior ranged from poor to satisfactory across category and showed statistically significant variations. Average interaction time was 7.87 minutes while average biomedical exam time was 5.05 minutes. The means showed a significant variation (p=0.001 at 95% CI). Conclusion: The study has shown that there is a reasonable ground to suggest that physician-patient interaction has deficiencies. Due attention should be given to improve communication skills of physicians.
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