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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10846 matches for " Sz-Kai Ruan "
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A highly efficient β-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5
Hsin-Liang Chen, Yo-Chia Chen, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Jui-Jen Chang, Hiaow-Ting C Wang, Tzi-Yuan Wang, Sz-Kai Ruan, Tao-Yuan Wang, Kuo-Yen Hung, Hsing-Yi Cho, Huei-Mien Ke, Wan-Ting Lin, Ming-Che Shih, Wen-Hsiung Li
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-24
Abstract: In this study, a cDNA encoding β-glucosidase was isolated from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 and is named NpaBGS. It has a length of 2,331 bp with an open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acid residues, corresponding to a theoretical molecular mass of 85.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.4. Two GH3 catalytic domains were found at the N and C terminals of NpaBGS by sequence analysis. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and after protein purification, the enzyme displayed a specific activity of 34.5 U/mg against cellobiose as the substrate. Enzymatic assays showed that NpaBGS was active on short cello-oligosaccharides from various substrates. A weak activity in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) digestion indicated that the enzyme might also have the function of an endoglucanase. The optimal activity was detected at 40°C and pH 5?~?6, showing that the enzyme prefers a weak acid condition. Moreover, its activity could be enhanced at 50°C by adding Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions. Interestingly, in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 or Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3 as the fermentation yeast, NpaBGS showed advantages in cell growth, glucose production, and ethanol production over the commercial enzyme Novo 188. Moreover, we showed that the KY3 strain engineered with the NpaNGS gene can utilize 2 % dry napiergrass as the sole carbon source to produce 3.32 mg/ml ethanol when Celluclast 1.5 L was added to the SSF system.Our characterizations of the novel β-glucosidase NpaBGS revealed that it has a preference of weak acidity for optimal yeast fermentation and an optimal temperature of ~40°C. Since NpaBGS performs better than Novo 188 under the living conditions of fermentation yeasts, it has the potential to be a suitable enzyme for SSF.
Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses
Tzi-Yuan Wang, Hsin-Liang Chen, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Yo-Chia Chen, Huang-Mo Sung, Chi-Tang Mao, Hsing-Yi Cho, Huei-Mien Ke, Teh-Yang Hwa, Sz-Kai Ruan, Kuo-Yen Hung, Chih-Kuan Chen, Jeng-Yi Li, Yueh-Chin Wu, Yu-Hsiang Chen, Shao-Pei Chou, Ya-Wen Tsai, Te-Chin Chu, Chun-Chieh A Shih, Wen-Hsiung Li, Ming-Che Shih
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-24
Abstract: We have developed an efficient platform that uses a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to N. patriciarum to accelerate gene identification, enzyme classification and application in rice straw degradation. By conducting complementary studies of transcriptome (Roche 454 GS and Illumina GA IIx) and secretome (ESI-Trap LC-MS/MS), we identified 219 putative GH contigs and classified them into 25 GH families. The secretome analysis identified four major enzymes involved in rice straw degradation: β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, xylanase B and Cel48A exoglucanase. From the sequences of assembled contigs, we cloned 19 putative cellulase genes, including the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH6, GH9, GH18, GH43 and GH48 gene families, which were highly expressed in N. patriciarum cultures grown on different feedstocks.These GH genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae for functional characterization. At least five novel cellulases displayed cellulytic activity for glucose production. One β-glucosidase (W5-16143) and one exocellulase (W5-CAT26) showed strong activities and could potentially be developed into commercial enzymes.Cellulosic ethanol produced by microbial fermentation from feedstocks has been proposed to replace fossil fuels in transportation. A key step in cellulosic ethanol production is to break down cellulose into glucose and hemicellulose into xylose, which can subsequently be converted into ethanol by fermentative microbes. Therefore, finding efficient cellulases is important to bioethanol production, as well as for hydrolyzing feedstocks into sugars in general. Neocallimastix species is one of the major anaerobic fungi in the rumen of water buffalo capable of efficiently digesting cellulosic biomass [1-4]. Such anaerobic fungi are potential sources for highly active cellulolytic enzymes that are useful for cellulose hydrolysis [5-7]. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes from rumen fungi such as Neocallimastix patriciarum may
Fixed-Point Iteration Method for Solving the Convex Quadratic Programming with Mixed Constraints  [PDF]
Ruopeng Wang, Hong Shi, Kai Ruan, Xiangyu Gao
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.52027

The present paper is devoted to a novel smoothing function method for convex quadratic programming problem with mixed constrains, which has important application in mechanics and engineering science. The problem is reformulated as a system of non-smooth equations, and then a smoothing function for the system of non-smooth equations is proposed. The condition of convergences of this iteration algorithm is given. Theory analysis and primary numerical results illustrate that this method is feasible and effective.

Different Effects of Malate on the Activities of Photosystem II in Detached Leaves of Maize and Tobacco  [PDF]
Zhenhai Cui, Ao Zhang, Ziling Hu, Lijun Zhang, Jinjuan Fan, Yanshu Zhu, Kai Hu, Yanye Ruan, Yixin Guan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.611173
Abstract: Malate is the first stable product after CO2 is fixed in NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME) type of C4 plants, which transfers CO2 and the reducing equivalent from mesophyll cell (MC) to vascular bundle sheath cell (BSC) chloroplasts and affects the redox state of BSC. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of exogenous malate on the activity of photosystem II (PS II) in C4 and C3 plants. The leaf discs from the 5th fully expanded leaves of maize (NADP-ME type C4 plants) and the 10th fully expanded leaves of tobacco (C3 plants) were treated with malate of 50, 100 μM and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured. Malate treatments decreased the photochemical reaction efficiency (FV/FM) in maize leaves, as a result of rising in initial fluorescence (FO) and decreasing in maximal fluorescence (FM). The number of active PS II reaction center (RC) per excited cross section (RC/CS) declined in malate-treated maize, suggesting that malate inactivated PS II RC. Malate treatments also increased Wk, representing the severity of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) damage, and decreased the rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We conclude that exogenous malate regulates the activity and structure of PS II in C4 plant maize. No significant changes in the activity of PS II were observed in malate-treated C3 plant tobacco. It is suggested that the short term malate treatment will inhibit PS II of leaves which have C4 anatomy and C4 enzymes.
Complete Solutions to Mixed Integer Programming  [PDF]
Ning Ruan
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.33B005

This paper considers a new canonical duality theory for solving mixed integer quadratic programming problem. It shows that this well-known NP-hard problem can be converted into concave maximization dual problems without duality gap. And the dual problems can be solved, under certain conditions, by polynomial algorithms.

The Internal Structure of Sha-henda: A Morphological Perspective  [PDF]
Jiacing Ruan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44045
Abstract: Sha-henda (殺很大) “kill-very-big” which is coined from an advertisement of an on-line game has been being recently very popular in Taiwan society. With the effect of this slogan, people tends to analogize more and more new expressions, for example: sheng-henda (省很大) “save-very-big”, shui-henda (睡很大) “sleep-very-big”, and etc. Until 2013, the quantity of the coined expressions is still increasing. In the previous studies of Shen (2009), Xiao (2009), Liu (2010) and Liu (2012) on the structure of X-henda (X-很大), the structure is highly productive, involves an extreme or exaggerative meaning, is featured of rising tone, stress, and lengthening, and is initiated with a verb or an adjective. This present study argues henda in X-henda is a bound form (or a particle (助詞); Chao, 1979), similar to qilai (起來) in X-qilai or bude (不得) in X-bude, especially without objects or objects-preceding. With Distributed Morphology, a derivational analysis of the X-henda structure indicates that the function of henda intensifies the effect of sha to the extreme degree with rising tone, stress and lengthening to perform exaggeration on the object (in a sentence). The results may further contribute to grammaticalization analyses, verb-complement structure analyses and Chinese language teaching.
Early Warning Effect of “Wearing Cap” and “Catching Cap” on the Company’s Risk Structure
—Empirical Research Based on Breakpoint Regression Design

Shuai Ruan
Modern Economy (ME) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/me.2019.103068
Abstract: This paper takes the listed companies in China from 2010 to 2015 as samples, which uses the breakpoint regression design to analyze the change of risk structure and its possible mechanism of listed companies after wearing and removing hats. The results show that the short-term solvency of listed companies deteriorates after wearing hats, and the long-term liabilities increase significantly. R&D expenditure decreased significantly, and cash flow level deteriorated. Financial leverage and comprehensive leverage increased significantly, and the total market value of the company decreased significantly, which led to a significant deterioration in the short-term financial risk structure of the company after wearing a hat.
Constraining Big Bang lithium production with recent solar neutrino data
Marcell P. Takács,Daniel Bemmerer,Tamás Szücs,Kai Zuber
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.123526
Abstract: The 3He({\alpha},{\gamma})7Be reaction affects not only the production of 7Li in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, but also the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun. This double role is exploited here to constrain the former by the latter. A number of recent experiments on 3He({\alpha},{\gamma})7Be provide precise cross section data at E = 0.5-1.0 MeV center-of-mass energy. However, there is a scarcity of precise data at Big Bang energies, 0.1-0.5 MeV, and below. This problem can be alleviated, based on precisely calibrated 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes from the Sun that are now available, assuming the neutrino flavour oscillation framework to be correct. These fluxes and the standard solar model are used here to determine the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor at the solar Gamow peak, S(23+6-5 keV) = 0.548+/-0.054 keVb. This new data point is then included in a re-evaluation of the 3He({\alpha},{\gamma})7Be S-factor at Big Bang energies, following an approach recently developed for this reaction in the context of solar fusion studies. The re-evaluated S-factor curve is then used to re-determine the 3He({\alpha},{\gamma})7Be thermonuclear reaction rate at Big Bang energies. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is 7Li/H = 5.0e-10, far higher than the Spite plateau.
The Application of Experimental Design and Optimization Techniques in Optimization of Microbial Medium

DAI Zhi-Kai,ZHANG Cui,RUAN Zheng,

微生物学通报 , 2010,
Abstract: The optimization of fermentation medium is important for improving microbial production or quality in fermentation industry. Experimental design and optimization techniques play an important role for optimizing medium. In this paper, we reviewed the methodologies and techniques used in optimization of microbial medium, including one-factor-at-a-time design, factorial design, uniform design, response surface optimization (RSM), artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithms (GA). Meanwhile, the methodologies and techniques were analyzed and evaluated comprehensively.
Blind interference cancellation approach based on ML criterion in DS-CDMA system

RUAN Xiu-kai,LI Chang,

重庆邮电大学学报(自然科学版) , 2005,
Abstract: 阐述了DSCDMA系统中多址干扰(MAI)与码间干扰(ISI)的盲去除问题。在最大似然准则(ML)的基础上,利用发送符号的统计特性与信道所具有的加性高斯噪声模型特征,根据导出的线性约束条件,通过EM算法实现了对盲接收机滤波器系数的优化更新。仿真结果表明本方案能有效地克服远近效应带来的多址干扰,而且在较短的接收数据长度条件下具有很好的收敛性能,对于高速率CDMA系统具有一定的参考价值。
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