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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3045 matches for " Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi "
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Molecular Characterization of Circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Genotypes in Gilgit Baltistan Province of Pakistan during 2011-2012 Winter Season
Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Birjees Mazher Kazi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074018
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV genotypes detected in Pakistani children less than 2 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in a tertiary care hospital in Gilgit Baltistan (GB) province during 2011-12 winter season. RSV was detected in 75 out of 105 children presenting with acute respiratory infection. Male infants between 2-6 months age made up the highest percentage of RSV positive cases. Epidemiological factors such as pre-maturity, mean weight, clinical features and diagnosis when compared between RSV positive and negative groups were found to be statistically insignificant. Phylogenetic analysis classified all 75 of the RSV strains into 71 strains of subgroups A and 4 strains of subgroup B, respectively. Strains belonging to subgroups A and B were further subdivided into NA1/GA2 and BA, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identities were relatively high among these strains (>90%). Both RSV-A and RSV-B isolates had two potential N-glycosylation sites in HVR2 of G protein and with heavy O-glycosylation of serine and threonine residues (G scores of 0.5-0.7). This report highlights the significance of RSV as a dominant viral etiologic agent of pediatric ARIs, and need for continued molecular epidemiological surveys for early detection of prevalent strains and newly emerging genotypes to understand epidemiology of RSV infections in various regions of Pakistan.
Serotype Diversity of Astroviruses in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2009–2010
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Shahzad Shaukat, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061667
Abstract: Astroviruses are globally known enteropathogens causing gastroenteritis and diarrhea, with eight well defined serotypes. Epidemiological studies have recognized serotype-1 as the most common subtype but no such data is available in Pakistan. During 2009–2010, we found astroviruses in 41 out of 535 (7%) samples collected from hospitalized children. Thirty one strains belonged to serotype-1 and clustered into two distinct lineages. Serotype-3, -4 and -6 were detected with 97–98% genetic homology to Indian and Chinese strains.
Influenza Virus Surveillance in Pakistan during 2008-2011
Nazish Badar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Birjees Mazhar Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079959
Abstract: Background There is little information about influenza among the Pakistani population. In order to assess the trends of Influenza-like-Illness (ILI) and to monitor the predominant circulating strains of influenza viruses, a country-wide lab-based surveillance system for ILI and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) with weekly sampling and reporting was established in 2008. This system was necessary for early detection of emerging novel influenza subtypes and timely response for influenza prevention and control. Methods Five sentinel sites at tertiary care hospitals across Pakistan collected epidemiological data and respiratory samples from Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) cases from January 2008 to December 2011. Samples were typed and sub-typed by Real-Time RT-PCR assay. Results A total of 6258 specimens were analyzed; influenza virus was detected in 1489 (24%) samples, including 1066 (72%) Influenza type A and 423 (28%) influenza type B viruses. Amongst influenza A viruses, 25 (2%) were seasonal A/H1N1, 169 (16%) were A/H3N2 and 872 (82 %) were A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza B virus circulation was detected throughout the year along with few cases of seasonal A/H1N1 virus during late winter and spring. Influenza A/H3N2 virus circulation was mainly observed during summer months (August-October). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for continuous and comprehensive influenza surveillance. Prospective data from multiple years is needed to predict seasonal trends for vaccine development and to further fortify pandemic preparedness.
Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients
Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Adnan Khurshid, Tariq Mahmood, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080040
Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources.
Prediction of Clinical Factors Associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Pakistan
Nadia Nisar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Nazish Badar, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089178
Abstract: Background Influenza is a viral infection that can lead to serious complications and death(s) in vulnerable groups if not diagnosed and managed in a timely manner. This study was conducted to improve the accuracy of predicting influenza through various clinical and statistical models. Methodology A retrospective cross sectional analysis was done on demographic and epidemiological data collected from March 2009 to March 2010. Patients were classified as ILI or SARI using WHO case definitions. Respiratory specimens were tested by RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms and co-morbid conditions were analyzed using binary logistic regression models. Results In the first approach, analysis compared children (≤12) and adults (>12). Of 1,243 cases, 262 (21%) tested positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 and the proportion of children (≤12) and adults (>12) were 27% and 73% respectively. Four symptoms predicted influenza in children: fever (OR 2.849, 95% CI 1.931–8.722), cough (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.512–3.643), diarrhea (OR 2.100, 95% CI 2.040–3.25) and respiratory disease (OR 3.269, 95% CI 2.128–12.624). In adults, the strongest clinical predictor was fever (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.025–3.135) followed by cough (OR 1.431, 95% CI 1.032–2.815). In the second instance, patients were separated into two groups: SARI 326 (26%) and ILI 917 (74%) cases. Male to female ratio was 1.41:1.12 for SARI and 2:1.5 for ILI cases. Chi-square test showed that fever, cough and sore throat were significant factors for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections (p = 0.008). Conclusion Studies in a primary care setting should be encouraged focused on patients with influenza-like illness to develop sensitive clinical case definition that will help to improve accuracy of detecting influenza infections. Formulation of a standard “one size fits all” case definition that best correlates with influenza infections can help guide decisions for additional diagnostic testing and also discourage unjustified antibiotic prescription and usage in clinical practice.
Human Parechovirus Genotypes -10, -13 and -15 in Pakistani Children with Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078377
Abstract: Human parechoviruses are known to cause asymptomatic to severe clinical illness predominantly respiratory and gastroenetric infections. Despite their global prevalence, epidemiological studies have not been performed in Pakistan. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 110 fecal specimen and found 26 (24%) positive for viral RNA with HPeV-10 (n = 3, 23%), HPeV-13 (n = 4, 31%) and HPeV-15 (n = 6, 46%) genotypes. Clinical features of patients with different HPeV genotypes were compared. All HPeV positive children were aged ≤4 years (mean 13.92 months). The male-to-female ratio was 1: 1.17 (46.2 vs 53.8%) with significant association (p = .031) to HPeV infectivity. HPeV-10 and -13 were found during summer while HPeV-15 was only detected during late winter season. Disease symptoms were more severe in children infected with HPeV-10 and -13 as compared to HPeV-15. Fever and vomiting were observed in 100% cases of HPeV-10 and -13 while only 17% patients of HPeV-15 had these complaints. Phylogenetic analyses showed that HPeV-10, -13 and -15 strains found in this study have 9–13%, 16.8% and 21.8% nucleotide divergence respectively from the prototype strains and were clustered to distinct genetic lineages. This is the first report of HPeV-15 infection in humans although first identified in rhesus macaques. The arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif present at the C-terminal of VP1 responsible for the viral attachment to cellular integrins was not found in all of these strains. In conclusion, these findings enhance our knowledge related to the epidemiology and genetic diversity of the HPeV in Pakistan and support the need for continued laboratory based surveillance programs especially in infants and neonatal clinical settings. Further, the parechovirus pathogenesis, cross-species transmission and disease reservoirs must be ascertained to adopt better prevention measures.
Evolution and Circulation of Type-2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Nad Ali District of Southern Afghanistan during June 2009-February 2011
Salmaan Sharif, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088442
Abstract: Oral polio vaccine has been used successfully as a powerful tool to control the spread of wild polioviruses throughout the world; however, during replication in under immunized children, some vaccine viruses revert and acquire the neurovirulent phenotypic properties. In this study, we describe the evolution and circulation of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses (VDPVs) in Helmand province of Afghanistan. We investigated 2646 AFP cases of Afghan children from June 2009–February 2011 and isolated 103 (04%) vaccine viruses, 45(1.7%) wild type polioviruses and six (0.22%) type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). These cVDPVs showed 97.7%–98.2% nucleotide and 98%–98.7% amino acid homology in VP1 region on comparison with Sabin type 2 reference strain. All these cVDPVs had two signature mutations of neurovirulent phenotypes and 12 additional mutations in P1 capsid region that might also have contributed to increase neurovirulence and replication. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these viruses were closely related and originated from previously reported Sabin like 2 virus from Pakistan which did not conform to the standard definition of VDPVs at that time. It was also observed that initial OPV dose was administered approximately 9 months prior to the collection of first stool specimen of index case. Our findings support that suboptimal surveillance and low routine immunization coverage have contributed to the emergence and spread of these viruses in Afghanistan. We therefore recommend high quality immunization campaigns not only in affected district Nad Ali but also in the bordering areas between Pakistan and Afghanistan to prevent the spread of cVDPVs.
Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses
Muhammad Masroor Alam,Adnan Khurshid,Shahzad Shaukat,Muhammad Suleman Rana,Salmaan Sharif,Mehar Angez,Nadia Nisar,Uzma Bashir Aamir,Muhammad Naeem,Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Viruses , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/v7010378
Abstract: Despite substantial interventions in the understanding and case management of acute gastroenteritis, diarrheal diseases are still responsible for a notable amount of childhood deaths. Although the rotavirus is known to cause a considerable burden of pediatric diarrheal cases, the roles of other viruses remain undefined for the Pakistani population. This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases were co-infected with rotavirus. The remarkable diversity of viruses associated with the childhood diarrhea in Pakistan calls for large-scale epidemiological surveys, coupled with case control studies, to ascertain their role in clinical manifestations. In addition, these findings also highlight the need for the implementation of up-to-date health interventions, such as the inclusion of a rotavirus vaccine in routine immunization programs for the improvement of quality in child health care.
Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses from Pakistan in 2009–2010
Uzma Bashir Aamir, Nazish Badar, Muhammad Rashid Mehmood, Nadia Nisar, Rana Muhammad Suleman, Shehzad Shaukat, Salman Sharif, Jaleel Kamran, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Larisa Gubareva, Xiyan Xu, Rebecca Garten, Alexander Klimov
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041866
Abstract: Background In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. Methods/Results The first case of human infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31st August 2010). The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. Conclusions Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.
Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Rana Muhammad Suleman, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Salman Akbar Malik, Tahir Masood Ahmed, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067998
Abstract: Pakistan harbors high disease burden of gastro-enteric infections with majority of these caused by rotavirus. Unfortunately, lack of proper surveillance programs and laboratory facilities have resulted in scarcity of available data on rotavirus associated disease burden and epidemiological information in the country. We investigated 1306 stool samples collected over two years (2008–2009) from hospitalized children under 5 years of age for the presence of rotavirus strains and its genotypic diversity in Lahore. The prevalence rate during 2008 and 2009 was found to be 34% (n = 447 out of 1306). No significant difference was found between different age groups positive for rotavirus (p>0.05). A subset of EIA positive samples was further screened for rotavirus RNA through RT-PCR and 44 (49.43%) samples, out of total 89 EIA positive samples, were found positive. G and P type prevalence was found as follows: G1P [4] = 3(6.81%); G1P [6] = 9(20.45%); G1P [8] = 1(2.27%); G2P [4] = 21(47.72%); G2P [8] = 1(2.27%); G9P [4] = 1(2.27%); G9P [6] = 1(2.27%) and G9P [8] = 7(15.90%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP7 and VP4 sequences clustered closely with the previously detected strains in the country as well as Belgian rotaviruses. Antigenic characterization was performed by analyzing major epitopes in the immunodominant VP7 and VP4 gene segments. Although the neutralization conferring motifs were found variable between the Pakistani strains and the two recommended vaccines strains (Rotarix? and RotaTeq?), we validate the use of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan based on the proven and recognized vaccine efficacy across the globe. Our findings constitute the first report on rotavirus’ genotype diversity, their phylogenetic relatedness and epidemiology during the pre-vaccination era in Lahore, Pakistan and support the immediate introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the routine immunization program of the country.
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