Abstract:
Quantum theory with conjecture of fractional charge quantization, eigenfunctions for fractional charge quantization, fractional Fourier transform, Hermite function for fractional charge quantization, and eigenfunction for a twisted and twigged electron quanta is developed and applied to resistivity, dielectricity, giant magneto resistance, Hall effect and conductance. Our theoretical relationship for quantum measurements is in good conformity and in agreement with most of the experimental results. These relationships will pave a new approach to quantum physics for deciphering measurements on single quantum particles without destroying them. Our results are in agreement with 2012 Physics Nobel Prize winning Scientists, Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland.

Abstract:
This paper describes a mechanism for content distribution through opportunistic contacts between subscribers. A subset of subscribers in the network are seeded with the content. The remaining subscribers obtain the information through opportunistic contact with a user carrying the updated content. We study how the rate of content retrieval by subscribers is affected by the number of initial seeders in the network. We also study the rate of content retrieval by the subscribers under coding strategies (Network Coding, Erasure Coding) and under Flooding, Epidemic Routing.

Abstract:
Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E) and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females) were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9%) were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1%) calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0%) patients. Total 73 (16.0%) calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7%) patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5%) patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1%) patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8%) patients. Total 104 (22.8%) emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7%) patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

Abstract:
Rutherford classical scattering theory, as its quantum mechanical analogue, is modified for scattering cross-section and the impact parameter by using quantum mechanical momentum, (de Broglie hypothesis), energy relationship for matter oscillator (Einstein’s oscillator) and quantum mechanical wave vectors, and , respectively. It is observed that the quantum mechanical scattering cross-section and the impact parameter depended on inverse square law of quantum action (Planck’s constant). Born approximation is revisited for quantum mechanical scattering. Using Bessel and Neumann asymptotic functions and response of nuclear surface potential barrier, born approximations were modified. The coulombic fields inside the nucleus of the atom are studied for reflection and transmission with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunctions Bulk quantum mechanical tunneling and reflection scattering, both for ruptured and unruptured nucleus of the atom, are deciphered with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunction. Similar calculation ware accomplished for quantum surface tunneling and reflection scattering with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunctions. Such diverse quantum mechanical scattering cross-section with corresponding wave vectors for tunneling and reflection, phase shifts and eigenfunctions will pave a new dimension to understanding the behavior of exchange fields in the nucleus of the atom with insides layers both ruptured and unruptured. Phase shifts, δ_{l} for each of the energy profile (partial) will be different and indeed their corresponding wave vectors for exchange energy eigenvalues.

Abstract:
We developed energy profiles for the fractional quantized states both on the surface of electron due to overwhelming centrifugal potentials and inside the electron at different locations of the quantum well due to overwhelming attractive electrodynamic potentials. The charge as a physical constant and single entity is taken as density and segments on their respective sub-quanta (floats on sub quanta) and hence the fractional charge quantiz at in. There is an integrated oscillatory effect which ties all fractional quantized states both on the surface and in the interior of the volume of an electron. The eigenfunctions, i.e., the energy profiles for the electron show the shape of a string or a quantum wire in which fractional quantized states are beaded. We followed an entirely different approach and indeed thesis to reproducing the eigenfunctions for the fractional quantized states for a single electron. We produced very fascinating mathematical formulas for all such cases by using Hermite and Laguerre polynomials, spherical based and Neumann functions and indeed asymptotic behavior of Bessel and Neumann functions. Our quantization theory is dealt in the momentum space.

Abstract:
Theories of Mott and Weertmann pertaining to quantum mechanical tunneling of dislocations from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals are revisited. Their mathematical calculations about logarithmic creep rate and lattice vibrations as a manifestation of Debye temperature for quantized thermal energy are found correct but they can not ascertain to choose the mass of phonon or “quanta” of lattice vibrations. The quantum mechanical yielding in metals at relatively low temperatures, where Debye temperatures operate, is resolved and the mathematical formulas are presented. The crystal plasticity is studied with stress relaxation curves instead of logarithmic creep rate. With creep rate formulas of Mott and Weertmann, a new formula based on logarithmic profile of stress relaxation curves is proposed which suggests simultaneous quantization of dislocations with their stress, i.e., and depinning of dislocations, i.e., , where is quantum action, σ is the stress, N is the number of dislocations, A is the area and t is the time. The two different interpretations of “quantum length of Peierls barrier”, one based on curvature of space, i.e., yields quantization of Burgers vector and the other based on the curvature of time, i.e., yields depinning of dislocations from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals, are presented. , i.e., the unitary operator on shear modulus yields the variations in the curvature of time due to which simultaneous quantization, and depinning of dislocations occur from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals.

Abstract:
The world demand for energy is rapidly increasing. This demand for energy
is increasing due to population growth and rising living standard. World
population is doubling about every thirty five years. The combined effect of
increasing need and diminishing supply constitutes the energy crises. Besides
this, the use of biomass fuels like wood, dung cake and agro waste are used as
a source of energy. The combustion of these fuels destructs the earth’s
atmosphere and directly affects the human life in forms of different ailments.
This paper discusses the performance investigations of a conventional burner
with different porous media used in LPG cooking stove. Thermal efficiency was
found using the water-boiling test. The porous medium combustion test showed that
a maximum thermal efficiency of about 61.86% was obtained with ball bearing,
which was 10.71% higher than that of the conventional burners 51.15%. The
thermal efficiency was found to increase by using porous medium combustion
technique.

Abstract:
In this paper we compare the packet error rate (PER) and maximum throughput of IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11g under interference from IEEE 802.15.4 by using MATLAB to simulate the IEEE PHY for 802.11n and 802.11g networks.

Abstract:
This work determine the entire family of positive integer solutions of the diophantine equation. The solution is described in terms of $\frac{(m-1)(m+n-2)}{2} $ or $\frac{(m-1)(m+n-1)}{2}$ positive parameters depending on $n$ even or odd. We find the solution of a diophantine system of equations by using the solution of the diophantine equation. We generalized all the results of the paper [5].

Abstract:
Let $a,b,c $ be any positive integers such that $c\mid ab$ and $d_i^\pm$ is a square free positive integer of the form $d_i^\pm=a^{2k} b^{2l}\pm i c^m$ where $k,l \geq m$ and $i=1,2.$ The main focus of this paper to find the fundamental solution of the equation $ x^2-d_i^\pm y^2=1$ with the help of the continued fraction of $\sqrt{d_i^\pm}.$ We also obtain all the positive solutions of the equations $ x^2-d_i^\pm y^2=\pm 1$ and $ x^2-d_i^\pm y^2=\pm 4$ by means of the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. Furthermore, in this work, we derive some algebraic relations on the Pell form $ F_{d_i^\pm}(x, y) = x^2-d_i^\pm y^2 $ including cycle, proper cycle, reduction and proper automorphism of it. We also determine the integer solutions of the Pell equation $ F_{\Delta_{d_i^\pm}} (x, y) = 1 $ in terms of $d_i^\pm. We generalized all the results of the papers [2], [9], [26], and [37].