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Approximate Reasoning in Fuzzy Resolution  [PDF]
Banibrata Mondal, Swapan Raha
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2013.32010

Resolution is an useful tool for mechanical theorem proving in modelling the refutation proof procedure, which is mostly used in constructing a proof of a theorem. An attempt is made to utilize approximate reasoning methodology in fuzzy resolution. Approximate reasoning is a methodology which can deduce a specific information from general knowledge and specific observation. It is dependent on the form of general knowledge and the corresponding deductive mechanism. In ordinary approximate reasoning, we derive from AB and by some mechanism. In inverse approximate reasoning, we conclude from AB and using an altogether different mechanism. An important observation is that similarity is inherent in fuzzy set theory. In approximate reasoning methodology-

Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem  [PDF]
Arpita Kabiraj, Prasun Kumar Nayak, Swapan Raha
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2019.91003
Abstract: Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set (IFS) can be used as a general tool for modeling problems of decision making under uncertainty where, the degree of rejection is defined simultaneously with the degree of acceptance of a piece of information in such a way that these degrees are not complement to each other. Accordingly, an attempt is made to solve intuitionistic fuzzy linear programming problems using a technique based on an earlier technique proposed by Zimmermann to solve fuzzy linear programming problem. Our proposed technique does not require the existing ranking of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. This method is also different from the existing weight assignment method or the Angelov’s method. A comparative study is undertaken and interesting results have been presented.
A Similarity Based Fuzzy System as a Function Approximator  [PDF]
Asim Pal, Injamam Ul Karim, Banibrata Mondal, Swapan Raha
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2018.84005
Abstract: In this paper, an attempt is made to prove that some similarity based fuzzy systems can be found to behave as function approximators. A typical similarity based fuzzy system is proposed and its behaviour is shown to have the said property. It elucidates the connection between similarity relation and similarity measure of fuzzy sets to fuzzy inference methodology. The concept of similarity relation is used in fuzzification of crisp input values. Similarity index is used in measuring approximate equality of fuzzy sets over a given universe of discourse of a linguistic variable. The similarity between the observation(s) and the antecedent of a rule is used in selecting rule(s) for possible firing and also in modifying the relation between the antecedent and consequent of the rule based on the specific observation. Inference is drawn through the usual composition and subsequently by projecting the modified fuzzy restriction acting on the variables of interest on the universe of the linguistic variable in the consequent of the rule. A specificity based defuzzification scheme is proposed for multiple-rule firing. It has been proved systematically that such a similarity based fuzzy system can uniformly approximate continuous functions to any desired degree of accuracy on a closed and bounded interval. Simulation results are presented for the well-known dc-motor problem. A comparative study is made to establish the validity and efficiency of the proposed similarity based fuzzy system.
Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem—II  [PDF]
Arpita Kabiraj, Prasun Kumar Nayak, Swapan Raha
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2019.94006
Abstract: Under non-random uncertainty, a new idea of finding a possibly optimal solution for linear programming problem is examined in this paper. It is an application of the intuitionistic fuzzy set concept within scope of the existing fuzzy optimization. Here, we solve a linear programming problem (LPP) in an intuitionistic fuzzy environment and compare the result with the solution obtained from other existing techniques. In the process, the result of associated fuzzy LPP is also considered for a better understanding.
Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: A report of two cases
Gangopadhyay Mimi,Raha Kalpana,Sinha Swapan,De Anuradha
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Malignant tumors of the vagina in infants and children are rare, with primary germ cell tumor (endodermal sinus tumor [EST]) being rarer, which carries a dismal prognosis. This tumor is often clinically mistaken as botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma and, on histopathological examination, is often misdiagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma. Two cases of EST of the vagina in infants aged 9 and 17 months are reported. Both the patients presented with bleeding per vagina and clinically and by ultrasonography were diagnosed as sarcoma botryoides. Both were diagnosed as primary yolk sac tumors. The serum alfa fetoprotein (AFP) level was 4325 and 9328 ng/ml, respectively. One patient aged 9 months expired 2 months after receiving chemotherapy. The other, aged 17 months, was given chemotherapy followed by surgery with reduction of the AFP levels.
Multi-pronged events from Coulomb fission of nuclei at very low energies
B. Basu,S. Dey,D. Gupta,A. Maulik,S. Raha,Swapan K. Saha,D. Syam
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Multi-pronged tracks have been recorded in the polyethylene terephthalate (C$_{10}$H$_8$O$_4$)$_n$ solid state nuclear track detector by exposure to a $^{252}$Cf fission source. After chemical etching, two-prong to six-pronged tracks along with single tracks have been observed under the optical microscope. We carried out a systematic study to understand the origin of the prongs. The track detectors were coated with metals (Cu, Ag and Pb) and were exposed to $^{252}$Cf source. After chemical etching two-prong to four pronged tracks were observed in each plate. We believe that at this very low energy of the order of 1 MeV/A, Coulomb fission is the only plausible explanation for the origin of such multi-pronged tracks.
Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) with high detection threshold to search for rare events in cosmic rays
S. Dey,D. Gupta,A. Maulik,Sibaji Raha,Swapan K. Saha,D. Syam,J. Pakarinen,D. Voulot,F. Wenander
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.02.005
Abstract: We have investigated a commercially available polymer for its suitability as a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). We identified that polymer to be polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and found that it has a higher detection threshold compared to many other widely used SSNTDs which makes this detector particularly suitable for rare event search in cosmic rays as it eliminates the dominant low Z background. Systematic studies were carried out to determine its charge response which is essential before any new material can be used as an SSNTD. In this paper we describe the charge response of PET to 129Xe, 78Kr and 49Ti ions from the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN, present the calibration curve for PET and characterize it as a nuclear track detector.
A Time Decay Vacuum is a New Era of Space Science with Reference to Magnetohydrodynamic Flows  [PDF]
Swapan Kumar Ghosh
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.13012
Abstract: A controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction of the Sun is the heart of the space craft propulsion system. A band of ultraviolet radiation and X-ray emission of shorter wave length permeated by a magnetic mirror in the presence of a radiofrequency accelerator with the Sun at the resonant level is to produce hydrogen fusion laser due to a driving force to act as a laser fusion thruster. A superfluid helium (4He2) of burning with the Sun is a fifth state of matter. A higher state of matter is confined to a typical helical line which corresponds to the existence of outer universe.
Dynamo Mechanism of the Sun with Reference to Magnetohydrodynamic Flows  [PDF]
Swapan Kumar Ghosh
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2014.44013

Resonance exhibits a dynamo mechanism of the Sun with an exotic behavior of a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction in the presence of a magnetic mirror. A charged oscillator takes place of a periodic driving force so that the laser radiation is so intense with the growing of a magnetic field towards the resonant level. Following the representation of a new era of a magnetic field, it has many practical applications of magnetohydrodynamics. In response to the practical situation of interest, a mechanism has been developed with reference to a dynamo mechanism of the system.

Conspiracy Determines World War III with Reference to Several Windows’ Channel in Connection with Earth Observation Satellite  [PDF]
Swapan Kumar Ghosh
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2018.84009
Abstract: Thermonuclear reaction exerts its influence of X-emission to produce several windows’ channel in the presence of an oscillator under electrical relay circuit with a decisive importance to a radiofrequency Earth observation satellite. Indian Television Network (National Channel) has introduced a radiofrequency accelerator to produce X-emission at resonance with an activation of artificial human environment under relay analogy in the presence of an Earth observation satellite. Thermonuclear reaction communicates several windows’ channel via Earth observation satellite. Star Television network communicates an artificial human environment under the influence of a relay circuit with different pulse code units of human brain with an active influence of an artificial sensation to generate the loss of humanity around the world.
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