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In the equation U = I – A for the Mott energy, the electron-hole interaction of the successor state is missing. Adding the attractive term, the energy for disproportionation (Hubbard U), may adopt any sign. The missing term is related to the Born effect, the Madelung correction and the Lattice Enthalpy.
Over the past decade, Scandinavian and German scholars have been active in the redefinition of the terms “Vitalism” and “Vitalist” as descriptive categories for analytical purposes in the fields of literary and cultural history. In this context,“Vitalism”has primarily been used to describe an enthusiastic worshipping of life, one that holds youth, health, strength and beauty as its primary attributes, which was prevalent in all aspects of cultural life around 1900. But even the post war founders of the Vitalist re-conceptualisation of this era, Wolfdietrich Rasch and Gunter Martens, warned of taking such a unilateral view ofwhat constituted a Vitalist concept of life. It could lead to a misunderstanding of Vitalist way of thinking, Rasch said, if the focus wasonly set upon the enthusiastic surplus, the worshipping of youth and health. To Vitalists, life is more than that. It is a totality that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death” (Rasch, 1967:24).Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry of the era. The analyses include a further sub-categorisation to capture the different types of Life Force dealt with in the texts. By way of an introduction, Vitalism is discussed within the context of the scientific and social developments of the 19th Century.
This paper extends the option betas presented by Cox and Rubinstein (1985) and Branger and Schlag (2007). In particular, we show how the beta of the underlying asset affects both an option’s covariance beta and its asset pricing beta. In contrast to Branger and Schlag (2007), the generalized option betas coincide if the options are evaluated according to the CAPM option pricing model of Husmann and Todorova (2011). The option betas are presented in terms of Black-Scholes option prices and are therefore easy to use in practice.
Whereas wrack dynamics on tidally influenced beaches have been studied to some detail, essentially nothing is known about how drift lines in tide-free coastal systems vary in space and time. We provide evidence for high spatial and temporal dynamics of beach-cast wrack on a sand beach in the Western Baltic Sea. Over the course of one year, the amount of weekly deposited macrophyte wrack fluctuated from zero to 3000 g·m-1 shoreline. Wrack mostly accumulated just above the waterline. Part of the beach-cast wrack is frequently re-suspended into coastal water upon extreme high water level events, or wrack patches are translocated landwards by wind-driven changes in water level or along the shoreline by winds. Consequently, the deposited wrack does accumulate, but a steady-state of ca 400 g·m-1 builds up within 2 - 3 weeks. Eelgrass wrack buried in sand decomposed almost twice as fast as on top of the sand or re-suspended in water. Fragmentation of leaves promoted decomposition only when wrack remained on the sand surface. The spatial and temporal distribution of this valuable source of organic matter is unpredictable and depends on wind and wind-driven waves.