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Viral Monitoring and Prevalence of Viral Failure in HIV-1 Infected Children under First Line Antiretroviral Therapy during the First 60 Months of Treatment in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A Serial Cross Sectional Analysis  [PDF]
Anne Esther Njom Nlend, Sidonie Lyeb, Suzie Tetang Ndiang Moyo, Annie Nga Motaze
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2016.61012
Abstract: Objective: The objective was to measure the prevalence of viral failure (VF) in HIV-1-infected children on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in routine practice. Methods: Serial cross sectional analysis of viral load (VL) in HIV-1 infected children on first-line ART for ≥24 weeks was done. VL was measured by Real-Time-Polymerase chain reaction (biocentrics). Samples were collected at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 months of treatment. Main measurement: Virological failure (VF) defined by a one-off VL > 1000 copies/ml. Results: 375 children aged ≤16 years on first-line-ART were included. Median age at ART start was 4.2 years and ≥50% have started ART ≤3rd birthday. A total of 717 measurements of VL were collected. VF was rated between 18% and 26% from 6 - 60 months (mean 20.2%), 95% IC [13.1 - 27.3] at the threshold of 1000 copies/ml, not too different at the threshold of 400 copies/ml, 21% - 30% (mean 23.9%), 95% IC [16.3 - 31.5], p = 0.9. Conclusion: In Yaounde, almost 20% of children on first-line of adherent-ART can experiment VF while improving immune status urging improvement of adherence.
Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon
Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Josiane Warszawski, Francis Ateba Ndongo, Ida Calixte Penda, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Georgette Guemkam, Nicaise Makwet, Félicité Owona, Anfumbom Kfutwah, Patrice Tchendjou, Ga?tan Texier, Maurice Tchuente, Albert Faye, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, The ANRS-PEDIACAM study group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093554
Abstract: Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (?2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG.
Back to Basics: Estimating Protein Requirements for Adult Hospital Patients. A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials  [PDF]
Suzie Ferrie, Samantha Rand, Sharon Palmer
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42028

Aim: To review the supporting evidence for protein requirements in hospitalised adults, and compare the findings with commonly-used guidelines and resources. Methods: a systematic review was conducted based on a computerised bibliographic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL from 1950 to October 2011, as well as a citation review of relevant articles and guidelines. Studies were included if they were randomised clinical trials in hospitalised or chronically ill adults, comparing two or more different levels of protein intake. Information about study quality, setting, and findings was extracted using standardised protocols. Due to the heterogeneity of study characteristics, no meta-analysis was undertaken. Results: 116 papers were obtained in the search and 33 of these met all inclusion criteria. Five studies could not be obtained. The remainder reported outcome measures such as nitrogen balance, anthropometric measurements (including body weight, BMI, and mid-arm circumference), blood electrolyte levels and serum urea, which provide support for recommended protein intakes in various clinical conditions. The results were summarized and compared with current recommendations. Conclusion: high-level evidence to support current recommendations is lacking. The studies reviewed generally agreed with current guidelines and resources.

Feasibility of Home Jejunal Feeding Following Discharge after Major Gastrointestinal Surgery—A Randomised Controlled Trial  [PDF]
Sharon Carey, Karen Lau, Suzie Ferrie
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.101008
Abstract: Purpose: Following major upper gastrointestinal surgeries, patients often struggle to eat after discharge from hospital. Home jejunal feeding is a potential nutrition support method, but few studies have explored such practice. The aim of this study is to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the feasibility of home jejunal feeding. Methods: Thirteen people having had major upper gastrointestinal surgeries were recruited and randomised into one of two isocaloric nutrition support interventions; oral supplement (OS) or jejunal feeding (JF), for one month post-discharge at home. Anthropometric, patient-generated subjective global assessment, food intake and quality of life surveys were collected at baseline, one month and three months post-discharge. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 6 participants after the three month review. Results: No statistically significant baseline differences were found between the two groups. At one month post-discharge, median weight loss was found to be significantly greater in OS group compared to JF group, 7.7% (inter-quartile range (IQR) = 7.3) and 0.5% (IQR = 3.5) respectively (p = 0.035). No significant differences were found in other parameters. Qualitative interviews showed positive feelings towards JF, while OS was deemed as not very helpful. Conclusions: This preliminary research shows the use of home JF is feasible when compared to oral nutrition support. This parallels with the limited existing literature, which indicate that JF is clinically beneficial. Larger studies are required to validate clinical and quality of life outcomes.
A Potential Integrated Water Quality Strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico
Suzie Greenhalgh,Paul Faeth
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.354
O histórico processo de exclus o/inclus o dos adolescentes autores de ato infracional no Brasil
Suzie Hayashida Cabral,Sonia Margarida Gomes Sousa
Psicologia em Revista , 2004,
Abstract: O artigo faz uma revisita o nas políticas públicas direcionadas aoadolescente autor de ato infracional no Brasil, intentando trazer àtona os elementos históricos constituintes do processo de inclus opela exclus o ainda hoje presentes na forma como se é lan adoo olhar sobre a adolescência, em especial a adolescência pobre emarginalizada.
Congenital pyloric atresia : A report of two cases
Tayeb Maaen,Khogeer Suzie,Fachartz,Fallatah Amna
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2005,
Double helix of research and practice—developing a practice model for crisis resolution and home treatment through participatory action research
Marit Borg,Bengt Karlsson,Hesook Suzie Kim
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v5i1.4647
Abstract: Over the last five years Crisis Resolution/Home Treatment (CR/HT) teams have been established in Norway. These teams provide an alternative to in-patient acute care services offering assessment as well as direct care. This paper addresses a method of examining the nature of practice models that are being developed in a CR/HT team incorporating the philosophy of open dialogue and the open lifeworld approach. The overall design of this research is action research applying a cooperative inquiry perspective. Multistage focus group interviews are used as a method for generating data, followed by phenomenological–hermeneutic approach in analyzing the data. Three themes were identified: (a) “keeping the dialogue open” referring to the emphasis of openness in dialogues and opening up for a variety of perspectives on what's going on; (b) “tolerance of uncertainty” referring to the need to accept and deal with uncertainty and multiplicity; and (c) “nurturing everyday life issues” referring to the emphasis on illustrating clinical situations in detail through remaking of stories. The on-going co-processes of research and practice was a double helix that links the happenings in the practice with the findings in the research revealing the knowledge in practice and further developing that knowledge.
Genetics of melanoma
Janet Wangari-Talbot,Suzie Chen
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00330
Abstract: Genomic variation is a trend observed in various human diseases including cancer. Genetic studies have set out to understand how and why these variations result in cancer, why some populations are pre-disposed to the disease, and also how genetics affect drug responses. The melanoma incidence has been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. The burden posed by melanoma has made it a necessity to understand the fundamental signaling pathways involved in this deadly disease. Signaling cascades such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3K/AKT have been shown to be crucial in the regulation of processes that are commonly dysregulated during cancer development such as aberrant proliferation, loss of cell cycle control, impaired apoptosis, and altered drug metabolism. Understanding how these and other oncogenic pathways are regulated has been integral in our challenge to develop potent anti-melanoma drugs. With advances in technology and especially in next generation sequencing, we have been able to explore melanoma genomes and exomes leading to the identification of previously unknown genes with functions in melanomagenesis such as GRIN2A and PREX2. The therapeutic potential of these novel candidate genes is actively being pursued with some presenting as druggable targets while others serve as indicators of therapeutic responses. In addition, the analysis of the mutational signatures of melanoma tumors continues to cement the causative role of UV exposure in melanoma pathogenesis. It has become distinctly clear that melanomas from sun-exposed skin areas have distinct mutational signatures including C to T transitions indicative of UV-induced damage. It is thus necessary to continue spreading awareness on how to decrease the risk factors of developing the disease while at the same time working for a cure. Given the large amount of information gained from these sequencing studies, it is likely that in the future, treatment of melanoma will follow a highly personalized route that takes into account the differential mutational signatures of each individual’s cancer.
Role of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor, mGlu1, in Melanoma Development
Janet Wangari-Talbot,James Goydos,Suzie Chen
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3092821
Abstract: Melanoma remains one of the cancers for which a decline in morbidity has not been achieved with current scientific and medical advances. Mono-therapies targeting melanoma have been largely ineffective, increasing the need for identification of new drugable targets. Multiple tumor suppressors and oncogenes that impart genetic predisposition to melanoma have been identified and are being studied in an attempt to provide insight on the development of anti-melanoma therapies. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor I ( GRM1) has recently been implicated as a novel oncogene involved in melanomagenesis. GRM1 (mGlu 1, protein) belongs to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super family and is normally functional in the central nervous system. Our group showed in a transgenic mouse model system that ectopic expression of Grm1 in melanocytes is sufficient to induce spontaneous melanoma development in vivo. GPCRs are some of the most important therapeutic drug targets discovered to date and they make up a significant proportion of existing therapies. This super family of transmembrane receptors has wide spread expression and interacts with a diverse array of ligands. Diverse physiological responses can be induced by stimulator(s) or suppressor(s) of GPCRs, which contributes to their attractiveness in existing and emerging therapies. GPCR targeting therapies are employed against a variety of human disorders including those of the central nervous system, cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital and respiratory systems. In the current review, we will discuss how the identification of the oncogenic properties of GRM1 opens up new strategies for the design of potential novel therapies for the treatment of melanoma.
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