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Two-hybrid analysis of Ty3 capsid subdomain interactions
Min Zhang, Liza SZ Larsen, Becky Irwin, Virginia Bilanchone, Suzanne Sandmeyer
Mobile DNA , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1759-8753-1-14
Abstract: Two-hybrid analysis was used to understand the interactions that contribute to particle assembly. Gag3 interacted with itself as predicted based on its role as the major structural protein. The N-terminal subdomain (NTD) of the capsid was able to interact with itself and with the C-terminal subdomain (CTD) of the capsid, but interacted less well with intact Gag3. Mutations previously shown to block particle assembly disrupted Gag3 interactions more than subdomain interactions.The findings that the NTD interacts with itself and with the CTD are consistent with previous modeling and a role similar to that of the capsid in retrovirus particle structure. These results are consistent with a model in which the Gag3-Gag3 interactions that initiate assembly differ from the subdomain interactions that potentially underlie particle stability.The Ty3 retrotransposon in budding yeast forms virus-like particles (VLPs) comprised of precursor Gag3 and Gag3-Pol3 polyproteins [1,2]. Previous alanine-scanning mutagenesis indicated that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the structural polyprotein Gag3 plays an important role in VLP formation [3]. During maturation, Gag3 is processed into 24 kDa capsid (CA), 27 kDa CA-spacer (SP), 3 kDa SP, and 7 kDa nucleocapsid (NC) protein by the Ty3 protease. Unlike most retrovirus cores, these cytoplasmic particles remain stable after proteolytic maturation.Two-hybrid analysis [4] was used to better understand the contributions of Gag3 subdomains to formation and stability of the Ty3 VLP. Fusions of Gag3 and derivatives to the C-terminus of the Gal4-BD tagged with c-Myc were expressed from the high-copy, TRP1-marked pGBK vector (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Fusions of Gag3 and derivatives to the C-terminus of the Gal4-AD tagged with HA were expressed from the LEU2-marked high-copy plasmid pGAD T7 (pGAD). These fusions were constructed by amplifying the appropriate regions from Ty3 Gag3 subclones in pGEM (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using polymer
Directed DNA Shuffling of Retrovirus and Retrotransposon Integrase Protein Domains
Xiaojie Qi, Edwin Vargas, Liza Larsen, Whitney Knapp, G. Wesley Hatfield, Richard Lathrop, Suzanne Sandmeyer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063957
Abstract: Chimeric proteins are used to study protein domain functions and to recombine protein domains for novel or optimal functions. We used a library of chimeric integrase proteins to study DNA integration specificity. The library was constructed using a directed shuffling method that we adapted from fusion PCR. This method easily and accurately shuffles multiple DNA gene sequences simultaneously at specific base-pair positions, such as protein domain boundaries. It produced all 27 properly-ordered combinations of the amino-terminal, catalytic core, and carboxyl-terminal domains of the integrase gene from human immunodeficiency virus, prototype foamy virus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty3. Retrotransposons can display dramatic position-specific integration specificity compared to retroviruses. The yeast retrotransposon Ty3 integrase interacts with RNA polymerase III transcription factors to target integration at the transcription initiation site. In vitro assays of the native and chimeric proteins showed that human immunodeficiency virus integrase was active with heterologous substrates, whereas prototype foamy virus and Ty3 integrases were not. This observation was consistent with a lower substrate specificity for human immunodeficiency virus integrase than for other retrovirus integrases. All eight chimeras containing the Ty3 integrase carboxyl-terminal domain, a candidate targeting domain, failed to target strand transfer in the presence of the targeting protein, suggesting that multiple domains of the Ty3 integrase cooperate in this function.
Market Segmentation of 92 Arab Banks  [PDF]
Suzanne Charbaji
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2017.63006
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to conduct market segmentation of Arab banks and suggest a model to classify them into cohesive segments on the basis of their financial ratios as a guideline for future consolidation. Twelve financial ratios taken from Bankscope Database have been retrieved for 92 Arab banks for the year 2015. In view of the sensitivity of multivariate analysis to the normality assumption, it was decided to use the common log transformation. Factor analysis is used as a data reduction technique to find twelve financial ratios. Cluster analysis is then used to separate the 92 Arab banks into five different performance groups (segments). Multi-discriminant statistical analysis is used to answer the question: can a combination of financial ratios be used to predict bank’s group membership? Findings of the study show that multidiscriminant analysis reveals that coverage ratio, profitability and efficiency separate the groups more widely than other financial ratios. The classification matrix shows that 98.9% of original banks are correctly classified. What’s more, to go after a more efficient risk policy, this paper recommends merging big banks with small Arab banks that are less profitable, less efficient, and in weaker condition than their non-acquired peers in addition to merging huge banks operating in different Arab countries. Results of this study should provide insight for future researchers. Also, this piece of research bridges the gap between financial ratio analysis and multivariate statistical analysis for Arab banks.
Facilitating Transdisciplinary Research in an Evolving Approach to Science  [PDF]
Fen Hunt, Suzanne Thornsbury
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24038
Abstract: Transdisciplinary research is changing the way research is conducted and supported by incorporating linkages between disciplinary fields, across geographic boundaries, and among scientists and broader societal stakeholder groups. There is a compelling opportunity and important role for social scientists to participate in both transdisciplinary projects addressing societal challenge issues and in research projects focused on the development of transdisciplinary project methodology and management. A shift in approach to scientific inquiry requires adjustments in institutional support structures as well as individual research projects and specific programs. US funding agencies, including the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) have clearly built trans-disciplinarity into their portfolio of research programs.
Cyanobacteria Diversity in Blooms from the Greater Sudbury Area  [PDF]
Suzanne Evans, Mazen Saleh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711071
Abstract: The Greater Sudbury Area is approximately 400 km north of the city of Toronto and falls within a large number of temperate lakes of various sizes. This area has been mined for nickel and other metals for several decades. These activities have affected the watersheds of Northern Ontario and have influenced the chemistry of a number of lakes. Blooms of cyanobacteria occur yearly in several lakes, mainly in the early and late summer months. Much of the chemistry of these lakes is known but the nature of the cyanobacterial blooms and the factors that may contribute to their sudden appearance are not. We sampled blooms from five Greater Sudbury Area lakes and identified the species present by morphological and molecular methods. The dominant genera present as characterized by morphological examination were Synechocystis, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, Cyl-indrospermum, Nostoc, Borzia, Phormidium, Pseudoanabaena, Oscillatoria, and Planktothrix. Three of these isolates, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, and Planktothrix were confirmed by partial rRNA sequence analysis.
Personal Accounts of Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Support Abstinence from Alcohol  [PDF]
Suzanne McGarva, Tony Machin
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.512008
Abstract: Alcohol consumption by professional educated women and mothers is rising. Drinking alcohol in the home is, for many, becoming a normalised and daily ritual. Previous research focuses on causality, risk factors and health related damage. Few studies focus on mothers of school age children specifically or why some mothers pursue and sustain alcohol free lives. The role of social media in enacting and sustaining abstinence is under researched, as are other factors important for this group in remaining abstinent. Aims: This qualitative study explored the reasons why mothers drank alcohol, and factors contributing to their decision to become alcohol free. It also explored the value and utility of social media in the form of a specific website aimed at providing support in abstinence. Methods: Six UK mothers with school age children who had become abstinent after previously drinking over official limits were recruited via social network website and interviewed. Transcripts were analysed thematically and inductive themes emerged. Results: Participants used alcohol to self-medicate, as a reward/relaxation strategy and because it was a normal part of their professional and daily lives. Reported reasons for abstinence included the negative effects alcohol had upon lives, inability to moderate/drink within guidelines and “trigger” events. Participants reported that their use of social media was inspirational, giving them a platform to share stories and help others and was preferred to traditional support. The use of social media in this way represented a supportive community and assisted vigilance toward the danger of relapse. Positive parenting identity, alternatives to alcohol, abstinence rewards and support from abstinent others were all factors in sustaining abstinence. Conclusions: Health professionals should recognise this hidden and hard to reach group and the potential efficacy of social media in assisting recovery from alcohol related issues.
Psychometric Evaluation of the Perceived Stress Scale in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women  [PDF]
Ruby Yu, Suzanne C. Ho
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.11001
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a population-based sample of early postmenopausal Chinese women in Hong Kong. Methods: 509 postmenopausal women, 50 to 64 years, recruited from the community through random telephone dialing were interviewed. The inter-view included the PSS, the Center of the Epidemiological Study of Depression Scale (CES-D), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the menopausal symptom checklist, and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Principle component analysis was used to determine the component structure of the PSS items. The reliability related to internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest by intra-class correlation coefficients. Construct validity was investigated with subgroup comparisons on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, and through correlations with the CES-D, the STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors. Results: Principle component analysis of the PSS showed that the scale consisted of 2 factors, which explained 52% of variance. Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.81) and the test-retest reliability after an interval of 2 weeks was 0.86. The PSS distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between subgroups on the basis of age, work status, and marital status, providing evidence of construct validity. The PSS was also correlated with CES-D, STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors; hence the construct validity was further supported. Conclusions: The PSS appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring psychological perceived stress for Chinese women in midlife.
Medicines Prices and Malaysia—Untangling the Medicines Web
Suzanne Hill
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040149
Las noticias de Madrid (News from Madrid)
Suzanne Wahrle
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-1-10
Abstract: The 10th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD) and Related Disorders was held in the Spanish capitol of Madrid from July 15–20, 2006. More than 5,000 researchers, students and clinicians came to Madrid to present their research and learn about the findings of others. The welcome reception at Palacio Negralejo, a sprawling estate on the outskirts of Madrid, allowed attendees to meet collaborators and friends and sample some typical Spanish food: Iberic ham, seafood paella, grilled veal and various tapas. Flamenco dancers, banjo players, and plenty of sangria created a festive beginning for the conference.The main conference was preceded by an imaging consortium on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a wide variety of methods, investigators showed correlations between AD or aging and different imaging measures. There was particular interest in white matter lesions, which several scientists noted were closely correlated with AD. Frank-Erik De Leeuw from UMC-Stradboud in the Netherlands reported that the extent of white matter lesions correlates with medial temporal atrophy in late-onset but not early-onset AD, suggesting that late-onset and early-onset AD may have some different pathological pathways [1]. There were also several reports on brain PET imaging using the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB). William Klunk from the University of Pittsburgh estimated that over 500 patients at 12 institutions have undergone PET scans using PiB, which appears to be a reliable marker of amyloid deposition [2]. It is hoped that imaging will identify patients at risk for AD and differentiate patients with amyloid-β deposition from patients with other types of pathology.Although there were hundreds of presentations at ICAD, a few stood out because of their importance and novelty. Perhaps the biggest news came from two independent groups of researchers at the Mayo Clinic and the University of Antwerp in Belgium. Both groups found mutations in the gene encoding progranulin that
Barroco em contexto
Cusick, Suzanne;
Per Musi , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-75992009000100002
Abstract: who made music during the long historical period now called "the baroque"? who listened to it? how might music-making have articulated relations of power, both within the european cultures where baroque aesthetics were born and in the american lands those cultures colonized? why might we in the 21st century continue to find such old music's interesting and beautiful? why might a greater understanding of the baroque be useful today? this paper will address these questions in a preliminary way by situating baroque music in relation to the emerging systems of representation, economic exchange, political power and artistic production that characterized european culture's long transition from the late16th-century's interlocking epistemological crises toward those crises resolution in the 18th-century's paradigms of enlightenment modernity.
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