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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 226280 matches for " Suzanne C Ho "
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Psychometric Evaluation of the Perceived Stress Scale in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women  [PDF]
Ruby Yu, Suzanne C. Ho
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.11001
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a population-based sample of early postmenopausal Chinese women in Hong Kong. Methods: 509 postmenopausal women, 50 to 64 years, recruited from the community through random telephone dialing were interviewed. The inter-view included the PSS, the Center of the Epidemiological Study of Depression Scale (CES-D), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the menopausal symptom checklist, and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Principle component analysis was used to determine the component structure of the PSS items. The reliability related to internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest by intra-class correlation coefficients. Construct validity was investigated with subgroup comparisons on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, and through correlations with the CES-D, the STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors. Results: Principle component analysis of the PSS showed that the scale consisted of 2 factors, which explained 52% of variance. Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.81) and the test-retest reliability after an interval of 2 weeks was 0.86. The PSS distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between subgroups on the basis of age, work status, and marital status, providing evidence of construct validity. The PSS was also correlated with CES-D, STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors; hence the construct validity was further supported. Conclusions: The PSS appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring psychological perceived stress for Chinese women in midlife.
Institutional risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes: a retrospective cohort study
Hualiang Lin, Sammy Ng, Shelley Chan, Wai Chan, Krystal CK Lee, Suzanne C Ho, Linwei Tian
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-297
Abstract: A cohort of 748 elderly homes was followed up from January 2005 to December 2007; each elderly home was treated as one observation unit and the outcome event was the norovirus outbreak. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate the rate ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the potential risk factors.A total of 276 norovirus outbreaks were confirmed during the study period; the outbreak rate was 12.2 (95% CI: 9.9-14.6) per 100 home-years; elderly homes with a larger capacity (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 (per 30-resident increment)), a higher staff-to-resident ratio (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3 (per 1/30 increment) and better wheelchair accessibility (RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) were found to have an elevated norovirus outbreak rate in Hong Kong elderly homes; Elderly homes with partitions between beds had a lower rate of norovirus outbreaks (RR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8).Elderly home capacity, staff-to-resident ratio and wheelchair accessibility were risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes. Partitions between beds were a protective factor of norovirus outbreaks. These results should be considered in the infection control in Hong Kong elderly homes.Hong Kong is facing an ageing population. In 2006, 12.4% of Hong Kong population were over 65 years old [1]. The population projection showed that the proportion of the elderly would go up to 21.9% in 2026 and 26.8% in 2033, respectively [2]. In 2005, there were about 60,000 elderly people residing in elderly homes, accounting for about 7% of the population aged 65 years old and above [3]. Residential care homes for the elderly are an important part of the health care system for the old age group. Evidence has shown that infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the institutionalized elderly [4]. An atypically high level of norovirus outbreak has been noticed in Hong Kong in early May 2006; most of the outbreaks were located in the elderly homes [5]. Healthcare-associated n
Cardiovascular Risks in Relation to Daidzein Metabolizing Phenotypes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women
Zhao-min Liu, Suzanne C. Ho, Yu-ming Chen, Jun Liu, Jean Woo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087861
Abstract: Background Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the relationship between equol and ODMA phenotypes and cardiovascular risks with habitual isoflavone consumption in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among 726 prehypertensive postmenopal women who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. 648 women returned a daidzein-challenged urine samples for determination of equol and O-DMA production. 595 attended clinic visits for assessment of cardiovascular risks including body composition, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). Results The prevalences of equol and O-DMA producers were 53.2% and 60.9% respectively. Equol producers had higher fat free mass (p = 0.001), lower systolic (p = 0.01) and diastolic (p = 0.01) BP, serum triglyceride (p = 0.023), hs-CRP (p = 0.015) and FFA (p = 0.001) than non-producers. O-DMA producers had lower body fat% (p = 0.032), SBP (p = 0.02), total cholesterol (p = 0.002) than non-producers. The significant differences remained after further adjustment for potential confounders. The habitual soy isoflavones intake had little relation to cardiovascular risk factors in either equol/O-DMA producer phenotypes. Conclusion Equol/O-DMA producers had more favorable cardiovascular risk profiles than non-producers in prehypertensive postmenopausal women.
A Six-Month Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Soy and Isoflavones Daidzein on Body Composition in Equol-Producing Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension
Zhao-min Liu,Suzanne C. Ho,Yu-ming Chen,Jean Woo
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/359763
Abstract: Objectives. This paper reported the effects of commonly used whole soy foods (soy flour) and purified daidzein (one of the major isoflavones and the precursor of equol) on changes in anthropometric measurements and body composition in a 6-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among prehypertensive postmenopausal women who are also equol producers. Methods. 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three treatments: 40?g soy flour (whole soy group), 40?g low-fat milk powder + 63?mg daidzein (daidzein group), or 40?g low-fat milk powder (placebo group) daily each for 6 months. Anthropometric indicators and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Results. 253 subjects completed the study with good compliance. Urinary isoflavones levels suggested good compliance of subjects with supplementation. Whole soy and purified daidzein had no significant effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage, fat mass, and free fat mass. Conclusion. Six-month consumption of whole soy and purified daidzein at provided dosage had no improvement on body weight and composition compared with isocaloric milk placebo among prehypertensive equol-producing postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01270737. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity are important clinical and public health burdens worldwide affecting more than 30% of adult population [1]. Aging- and menopause-induced estrogen deficiency results in an increase in body weight or abdominal fat and a decrease in lean mass which contribute to an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other metabolic disorders [2, 3]. Diet therapy has the lowest side effects for the prevention and management of postmenopausal obesity relative to hormone replacement therapy [4]. Soy is a traditional Asian diet and also a rich source of plant protein, unsaturated fat, dietary fiber, isoflavones (one major phytoestrogen), saponin, and so forth with a potential role on fat mass reduction and weight control. Laboratory and animal studies are generally supportive for soy and/or its components when isocaloric diets are administered to promote weight and fat loss by increasing energy utilization [5], reducing fat accumulation [6], and promoting a select loss of visceral adipose tissue [7] with more benefits than those ofcasein or other animal foods [8, 9]. Several observational studies [10–12], but not all [13], have reported that soy or isoflavone correlated with lower body mass
The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women
Zhao-Min Liu,Jean Woo,Sheng-Hui Wu,Suzanne C. Ho
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5072590
Abstract: Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.
Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study
Linwei Tian, Shifeng Dai, Jianfang Wang, Yunchao Huang, Suzanne C Ho, Yiping Zhou, Donald Lucas, Catherine P Koshland
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-398
Abstract: We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer.The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide [1]. China has a rapidly rising rate of lung cancer that will drive up global rates of lung cancer in the future [1]. Lung cancer mortality is generally higher in cities than in rural areas, but the highest female lung cancer rate of China was found in a rural county, Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province (Figure 1). The mean age of lung cancer diagnosis was about 55 years, more than 10 years younger than i
Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China
Hualiang Lin, Liang Lu, Linwei Tian, Shuisen Zhou, Haixia Wu, Yan Bi, Suzanne C Ho, Qiyong Liu
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-130
Abstract: The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces.Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female) for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces.The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is characterized by the predominance of adult men cases. Imported falciparum malaria in the non-endemic area of China, affected mainly by the malaria transmission in Yunnan, has increased both spatially and temporally. Specific intervention measures targeted at the mobile population groups are warranted.Malaria incidence appears to be decreasing worldwide as a result of mass interventions and other factors [1,2]. The decreasing pattern of incidence is encour
One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China
Linwei Tian, Yan Bi, Suzanne C Ho, Wenjie Liu, Song Liang, William B Goggins, Emily YY Chan, Shuisen Zhou, Joseph JY Sung
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-110
Abstract: Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence.At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria.Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics [1] with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change [2]. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. These findings can be applied in a modeling exercise to estimate future patterns of malaria. Over the past century the world has warmed by 0.6°C [3], with a range of ecological consequences [4]. The possible linkage between global warming and the increase in malaria incidence or its geographic spread has been extensively debated [5-7]. The current evidence is insufficient to clearly attribute the increase of malaria incidence or its geographic spread in the east African highlands to local warming [8]. The relationship between climate and malaria may be
The SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): development and psychometric properties
Thilo Kroll, Matthew Kehn, Pei-Shu Ho, Suzanne Groah
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-34
Abstract: Based on literature reviews, expert comments and cognitive testing, 10 items were included and made up the 4-point Likert SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) in its current form. The ESES was administered as part of the first wave of a nationwide survey (n = 368) on exercise behavior and was also tested separately for validity in four groups of individuals with SCI. Reliability and validity testing was performed using SPSS 12.0.Cronbach's alpha was .9269 for the ESES. High internal consistency was confirmed in split-half (EQ Length Spearman Brown = .8836). Construct validity was determined using principal component factor analysis by correlating the aggregated ESES items with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). We found that all items loaded on one factor only and that there was a statistically significant correlation between Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) and Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Spearman RHO = .316; p < .05; n = 53, 2-sided).Preliminary findings indicate that the ESES is a reliable instrument with high internal consistency and scale integrity. Content validity both in terms of face and construct validity is satisfactory.Perceived self-efficacy, defined as "beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required for producing given attainments" [1], is one of the most widely researched concepts in health promotion. The role of efficacy beliefs in sustaining adherence to exercise regimens has generated some attention in research with the general population [1]. Research has found that people who hold high self efficacy beliefs prior to starting an exercise program show better adherence to an exercise regimen once implemented [2]. This holds true for exercise that is part of a supervised program and personal unsupervised exercise regimens. In short, success in adopting and maintaining regular exercise depends largely on the individual's self-regulatory efficacy.Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have l
Metastatic Rectal Adenocarcinoma of the Hip and Knee Joints: A Case Series  [PDF]
Adam C. Rothenberg, Karl J. Henrikson, Suzanne C. Schiffman, Mark A. Goodman
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.54039
Abstract:

Two cases are presented of patients with a history of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma presenting with a painful joint effusion. Both cases are potential examples of metastasis to periarticular bone with local infiltration to the synovium, which is one proposed mechanism of intrasynovial metastasis. While skeletal metastases are a relatively common occurrence in metastatic adenocarcinoma, intraarticular metastasis is extremely rare. These cases highlight the need to consider metastasis in the differential of joint swelling in the setting of a history of adenocarcinoma.

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